sensation and perception

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sensation and perception by Mind Map: sensation and perception

1. sensation vs perception

1.1. sensation is when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor. ex: light that enters the eye causes chemical changes in cells that line the back of the eye

1.1.1. transduction is the conversion from sensory stimulus energy to action potential is known as

1.1.2. absolute threshold vs difference threshold difference threshold is how much difference in stimuli is required to detect a difference between them. ex: when you're in a dark room and a phone lights up absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulus energy that must be present for the stimulus to be detected 50% of the time ex: how dim can a light be or how soft can a sound be and still be detected half of the time

1.2. perception refers to the way sensory information is organized, interpreted, and consciously experienced

1.2.1. sensory adaptation vs. habituation sensory adaptation is when we often don’t perceive stimuli that remain relatively constant over prolonged periods of time. Ex: when you hear a clock ticking but you start doing something else so you don't hear it anymore but it is still happening habituation is learning to block something out and shifting your attention away from it

1.2.2. top down vs, bottom up processing top-down processing is how we interpret sensations influenced by our knowledge, experience, and thoughts Bottom-up processing refers to the fact that perceptions are built from sensory input

2. Gestalt Principles

2.1. figure-ground is when we see a shape on a white piece of paper but there is another shape involved but we just assume it is a figure on a background

2.2. proximity - objects tend to be grouped together if they are close to each other. Ex: rows vs. columns

2.3. similarity- objects tend to be grouped together if they are similar. Ex: the picture of circles and triangles

2.4. continuity- when there is an intersection between two or more objects we tend to perceive each object as a single uninterrupted object. Ex: an X is 2 lines but we see one figure

2.5. closure- visual connection or continuity between sets of elements which do not actually touch each other in a composition. Ex: clover picture from notes

2.6. contiguity-is the principle that ideas, memories, and experiences are linked when one is frequently experienced with the other. Ex: we see a fork and a knife together so we group them together always

2.7. common region suggests that elements that are grouped together within the same region of space tend to be grouped together. EX: when we group circles in a box and make them a category

3. how experiences and expectations influence perception

3.1. perpetual constancies

3.1.1. size constancy is the tendency to perceive objects as always being the same size

3.1.2. shape constancy is the tendency to perceive objects as the same shape even when the object changes shape in the retina

3.1.3. brightness constancy is seeing things as the same color even when the light changes

3.1.4. perceptual expectancy, is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way

4. vision

4.1. cornea is the transparent covering over the eye. pupil is the small opening in the eye through which light passes. After passing through the pupil, light crosses the lens, a curved, transparent structure that serves to provide additional focus. the lens will focus images perfectly on a small indentation in the back of the eye known as the fovea. fovea, which is part of the retina, the light-sensitive lining of the eye.

4.1.1. cones are specialized types of photoreceptors that work best in bright light conditions

4.1.2. Rods are specialized photoreceptors that work well in low light conditions

4.1.3. The optic nerve carries visual information from the retina to the brain

4.1.4. a point in the visual field called the blind spot: Even when light from a small object is focused on the blind spot, we do not see it

4.1.5. The optic nerve from each eye merges just below the brain at a point called the optic chiasm.

4.2. trichromatic theory all colors in the spectrum can be produced by combining red, green, and blue

4.3. opponent process theory color is coded in opponent pairs: black-white, yellow-blue, and green-red

4.4. afterimage describes the continuation of a visual sensation after removal of the stimulus

4.5. binocular cues rely on both eyes

4.6. monocular cues rely on only one eye

4.6.1. Linear perspective refers to the fact that we perceive depth when we see two parallel lines that seem to converge in an image

4.7. accommodation- pupils change shape for objects close or far

4.8. Motion parallax is a monocular depth cue in which we view objects that are closer to us as moving faster than objects that are further away from us

4.9. interposition is the way objects are placed to make one seem closer than the other

4.10. Relative size is a perceptual clue which allows you to determine how close objects are to an object of known size

4.11. Texture gradient is the distortion in size which closer objects have compared to objects farther away

4.12. Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance

4.13. light adaptation retinal sensitivity is lost. Dark adaptation is essentially the reverse of light adaptation

5. Hearing

5.1. pinna, which is the visible part of the ear that protrudes from our heads. auditory canal, and the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. The middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles, which are named the malleus (or hammer), incus (or anvil), and the stapes. Cochlea is a fluid-filled, snail-shaped structure that contains the sensory receptor cells. hair cells, which are auditory receptor cells of the inner ear embedded in the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane is a thin strip of tissue within the cochlea.

5.2. temporal theory of pitch perception asserts that frequency is coded by the activity level of a sensory neuron

5.3. place theory of pitch perception suggests that different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies.

5.4. sound localization

5.4.1. binaural is 2 ears

5.4.2. monaural is one ear

5.4.3. Interaural level difference refers to the fact that a sound coming from the right side of your body is more intense at your right ear than at your left ear because of the attenuation of the sound wave as it passes through your head.

5.4.4. Interaural timing difference refers to the small difference in the time at which a given sound wave arrives at each ear

5.5. Ruffini corpuscles detect stretch

5.6. hearing loss and symptoms

5.6.1. congenital deafness is when youre born deaf

5.6.2. conductive hearing loss because of age, genetic predisposition, or environmental effects, including exposure to extreme noise

5.6.3. When the hearing problem is associated with a failure to transmit neural signals from the cochlea to the brain, it is called sensorineural hearing loss.

5.6.4. vertigo is a sense of pressure inside the inner ear that causes dizziness and spinning

5.6.5. Cochlear implants are electronic devices that consist of a microphone, a speech processor, and an electrode array

6. taste

6.1. 6 taste groupings - sweet, sour, salty, umami, fat

6.2. Taste buds are formed by groupings of taste receptor cells with hair-like extensions that protrude into the central pore of the taste bud

7. smell

7.1. Olfactory receptor cells are located in a mucous membrane at the top of the nose

7.2. olfactory bulb: a bulb-like structure at the tip of the frontal lobe where the olfactory nerves begin

7.3. chemical messages, known as pheromones, sent by another individual. Pheromonal communication often involves providing information about the reproductive status of a potential mate. So, for example, when a female rat is ready to mate, she secretes pheromonal signals that draw attention from nearby male rats

8. touch

8.1. Pacinian corpuscles detect transient pressure and higher frequency vibrations

8.2. Meissner’s corpuscles respond to pressure and lower frequency vibrations

8.3. Merkel’s disks respond to light pressure

8.4. thermoception (temperature perception

8.5. nociception (a signal indicating potential harm and maybe pain)

8.6. Pain that signals some type of tissue damage is known as inflammatory pain.

8.7. neuropathic pain results from damage to neurons of either the peripheral or central nervous system

8.8. Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdomina

8.9. Somatic pain occurs when pain receptors in tissues

8.10. congenital insensitivity to pain is when a person has never felt pain before or can't feel pain

8.11. proprioception (perception of body position)

8.12. kinesthesia (perception of the body’s movement through space)

9. perceptual illusions and the nature of attention

9.1. Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice a fully-visible, but unexpected object because attention was engaged on another task, event, or object

9.2. Detection theory is the ability to differentiate between information-bearing patterns and random patterns that distract from the information

9.3. The Müller-Lyer illusion is an optical illusion consisting of three stylized arrows

9.4. The autokinetic effect is a phenomenon of visual perception in which a stationary, small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move

9.5. The Stroboscopic Effect is a perceptual phenomenon in which an appearance of motion occurs when the stimulus is not viewed, ex: plane propeller picture

9.6. phi phenomenon is an illusion that is visual in nature, which causes an observer or viewer to distinguish and perceive movement in stationary objects. ex: the picture of the circles with one missing