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CHAPTER 2 by Mind Map: CHAPTER 2

1. TYPES OF SYSTEM CALLS

1.1. PROCESS CONTROL

1.1.1. CREATE PROCESS, TERMINATE PROCESS

1.1.2. END, ABORT

1.1.3. LOAD, EXECUTE

1.1.4. GET PROCESS ATTRIBUTES, SET PROCESS ATTRIBUTES

1.1.5. WAIT FOR TIME

1.1.6. WAIT EVENT, SIGNAL EVENT

1.1.7. ALLOCATE AND FREE MEMORY

1.1.8. DUMP MEMORY IF ERROR

1.1.9. DEBUGGER FOR DETERMINING THE BUGS, SINGLE STEP EXECUTION

1.1.10. LOCKS FOR MANAGING ACCESS TO SHARED DATA BETWEEN PROCESSES

1.2. FILE MANAGEMENT

1.2.1. CREATE AND DELETE FILE

1.2.2. OPEN AND CLOSE FILE

1.2.3. READ, WRITE AND REPOSITION

1.2.4. GET AND SET FILE ATTRIBUTES

1.3. DEVICE MANAGEMENT

1.3.1. REQUEST AND RELEASE DEVICE

1.3.2. READ, WRITE AND REPOSITION

1.3.3. GET DEVICE ATTRIBUTES AND SET DEVICE ATTRIBUTES

1.3.4. LOGICALLY ATTACH OR DETACH DEVICES.

1.4. INFORMATION MAINTENANCE

1.4.1. GET AND SET TIME OR DATE

1.4.2. GET AND SET SYSTEM DATE

1.4.3. GET AND SET PROCESS, FILE OR DEVICE ATTRIBUTES

1.5. COMMUNICATIONS

1.5.1. CREATE AND DELETE COMMUNICATION CONNECTION

1.5.2. SEND, RECEIVE MESSAGES IF MESSAGE PASSING MODEL TO NAME OR PROCESS NAME

1.5.2.1. FROM CLIENT TO SERVER

1.5.3. TRANSFER STATUS INFORMATION

1.5.4. SHARED MEMORY MODEL

1.5.5. ATTACH AND DETACH REMOTE DEVICES

1.6. PROTECTION

1.6.1. CONTROL ACCESS TO RESOURCES

1.6.2. GET AND SET PERMISSIONS

1.6.3. ALLOW AND DENY USER ACCESS

2. OPERATING SYSTEM SERVICES

2.1. USER INTERFACE

2.1.1. CLI OR COMMAND INTERPRETER ALLOWS DIRECT COMMAND ENTRY

2.1.1.1. IMPLEMENTED IN KERNEL

2.1.1.2. IMPLEMENTED IN SHELLS

2.1.2. USER FRIENDLY DESKTOP

2.1.2.1. MOUSE, KEYBOARD AND MONITOR

2.1.2.2. ICONS REPRESENT FILES, KEYBOARD AND MONITOR

2.2. PROGRAM EXECUTION

2.3. I/O OPERATIONS

2.4. FILE SYSTEM MANIPULATION

2.5. COMMUNICATIONS

2.6. ERROR DETECTION

2.7. RESOURCE ALLOCATION

2.8. ACCOUNTING

2.9. PROTECTION AND SECURITY

3. SYSTEM CALLS

3.1. PROGRAMMING INTERFACE TO THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE OS.

3.2. MOSTLY ACCESSED BY PROGRAMS VIA HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (API) RATHER THAT DIRECT SYSTEM CALL USE

3.3. THREE MOST COMMON API

3.3.1. WIN32 API FOR WINDOWS

3.3.2. POSIX API FOR POSIX-BASED SYSTEMS

3.3.3. JAVA API FOR THE JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE(JVM)

3.4. IMPLEMENTATION

3.4.1. SYSTEM CALL INTERFACE

3.4.1.1. MAINTAINS A TABLE INDEXED ACCORDING TO THESE NUMBERS

3.4.1.2. INVOKES THE INTENDED SYSTEM CALL IN OS KERNEL AND RETURNS STATUS OF THE SYSTEM CALL AND ANY RETURN VALUES

3.5. PARAMETER PASSING

3.5.1. THREE GENERAL METHODS

3.5.1.1. REGISTERS

3.5.1.2. BLOCK

3.5.1.3. PUSHED OR POPPED

4. SYSTEM PROGRAMS

4.1. FILE MANIPULATION

4.2. STATUS INFORMATION

4.3. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE SUPPORT

4.4. PROGRAM LOADING AND EXECUTION

4.5. COMMUNICATIONS

4.6. BACKGROUND SERVICES

4.7. APPLICATION PROGRAMS

5. USER GOALS

5.1. OPERATING SYSTEM SHOULD BE CONVENIENT TO USE, EASY TO LEARN, RELIABLE, SAFE AND FAST

6. SYSTEM GOALS

6.1. OPERATING SYSTEM SHOULD BE EASY TO DESIGN, IMPLEMENT AND MAINTAIN, AS WELL AS FLEXIBLE, RELIABLE, ERROR FREE AND EFFICIENT

7. MICROKERNEL SYSTEM STRUCTURE

7.1. MOVES AS MUCH FROM THE KERNEL INTO USER SPACE

7.2. BENEFITS

7.2.1. EASIER TO EXTEND A MICROKERNEL

7.2.2. EASIER TO PORT THE OPERATING SYSTEM TO NEW ARCHITECTURE

7.2.3. MORE RELIABLE

7.2.4. MORE SECURE

8. MODULES

8.1. MANY OS IMPLEMENT LOADABLE MODULES

8.1.1. USERS OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH

8.1.2. EACH CORE COMPONENT IS SEPARATE

8.1.3. EACH TALKS TO THE OTHERS OVER KNOWN INTERFACES

8.1.4. EACH IS LOADABLE AS NEEDED WITHIN THE KERNEL

9. DEBUGGING IS FINDING AND FIXING ERROR, OR BUGS. OS GENERATE LOG FILES CONTAINING ERROR INFORMATION.

9.1. FAILURE OF AN APPLICATION CAN GENERATE CORE DUMP FILE CAPTURING MEMORY OF THE PROCESS

9.2. OPERATING SYSTEM FAILURE CAN GENERATE CRASH DUMP FILE CONTAINING KERNEL MEMORY

9.3. PROFILING IS PERIODIC SAMPLING OF INSTRUCTION POINTER TO LOOK FOR STATISTICAL TRENDS