Creating Enduring Memories & Effective Learning

The science of learning

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Creating Enduring Memories & Effective Learning by Mind Map: Creating Enduring Memories & Effective Learning

1. Sensory Memory

1.1. Ultra short-term memory

2. Short Term (Working) Memory

2.1. Forgotten memories may occur here

2.2. Where we reason & think

2.3. The gateway into Long-Term memory

2.4. Limited in capacity

3. Long-Term Memory

3.1. Forgotten memories may occur here

3.2. Memories stored for long-term

4. Sensory Input

4.1. Observations from our senses

5. Encoding / Retrieval Practices

5.1. Consolidates, modifies and reorganizes memory for enhanced long term storage; creates secondary retrieval pathways for ease of recall

5.2. Active learning links new knowledge and information to prior knowledge

5.3. Elaborative encoding creates a dialogue between working memory and long-term memory

5.4. Helps to identify knowledge gaps in understanding

5.5. Teaching a friend or creating flashcards are excellent encoding/retrieval strategies

6. Attention / Cognitive Load

6.1. Cognitive load is the total amount of mental activity occupying working memory at any moment; and is influenced by distraction and other attention-altering events

6.2. Limited in capacity - the bottleneck between sensory and Short-term memories

6.3. Prevent cognitive overload: study in a quiet, well-lit environment free of distractions; ensure adequate sleep is maintained

7. Rehearsal

7.1. Spaced practice: a learning strategy that more effectively links new learning to prior knowledge

7.1.1. Creates more durable and useable memories compared to "mass practice" (ie. cramming)

7.2. Interleaved practice: switching topics to study in short spaced intervals is an effective learning strategy

8. "Memory is the residue of thought." - Daniel Willingham

8.1. We learn from our reflection upon our experiences

8.2. Making memories is effortful and requires thinking

9. Intrinsic Motivation

9.1. Enhances a sense of independence and autonomy

9.2. Links learning and the creation of memories to personal meaning & purpose

9.3. The feeling of accomplishment, success and the development of mastery are achieved

9.4. Is enhanced with effective praise: "Way to explore new strategies", or "Great progress" or "Your hard work is impressive - it's paying off"

10. Metacognition Encouragement

10.1. Revise work using effective feedback

10.2. Take time to consider the purpose of what you are learning

10.3. Reflect on criteria for learning success

10.4. Collaborate and share knowledge for peer review and effective feedback

10.5. Creates an inner dialogue of philosophical questions

10.6. Develops the ability to self assess

11. Source: “The Science of Learning - What Every Teacher Should Know” from Course EDSCI1X: Teachers College Columbia University.