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Punctuation by Mind Map: Punctuation

1. Apostrophie

1.1. Replace missing letters, to form contractions, or to show possession.

2. Misues of apostrophie: form plurals, match the apostrophes with acronyms.


3.1. Capitalize the first word of a sentence and proper nouns—the names of people, places, and things.

3.1.1. Capitalize in: First word in a direct quotation indicate family relationships, proper nouns, languages, religions, clubs, letter greetings and closing.

4. Colon

5. Use a colon after the greeting in a business letter, separate hours and minutes, set off dialogue for a script, introduce items in a long list, introduce an explanation or definition, etc.

6. Comma

6.1. Has a variety of uses, but its purpose is mainly to keep words and ideas clear.

6.2. openings of friendly letters, separate initials from surnames, adjectives before a noun.

6.3. set off set off introductory words and phrases, words that interrupt the main idea, appositives, non-essential words.

7. Hyphen

7.1. Used to form compound words or join word groups.

7.1.1. prefixes and some suffixes

7.1.2. link names

7.1.3. make long words clearer

8. Parentheses

8.1. Form of punctuation to be used around words in a sentence to add or clarify information.

8.2. Anything placed in parentheses is considered to be less important than anything outside of it.

9. Dash

10. Show a break in thought in a sentence.

11. Ellipsis

11.1. Is a series of three dots that indicate the omission of words or information.