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Malnutrition by Mind Map: Malnutrition

1. Signs & Symptoms

1.1. Nutrient Deficiency

1.1.1. Iron Fatigue Anaemia Decreased cognitive function Headache Glossitis Nail changes

1.1.2. Iodine Goiter Developmental delay Mental retardation

1.1.3. Vitamin D Poor growth Rickets Hypocalcemia

1.1.4. Vitamin A Night blindness Xerophthalmia Poor growth Hair changes

1.1.5. Folate Glossitis Megaloblastic anaemia Neural tube defects

1.1.6. Zinc Anaemia Dwarfism Hepatosplenomegaly Hyperpigmentation Hypogonadism Acrodermatitis enteropathica Diminished immune response Poor wound healing

1.2. Physical Examination

1.2.1. Decreased subcutaneous tissue

1.2.2. Edema

1.2.3. Oral changes Cheilosis Angular stomatitis Papillar atrophy

1.2.4. Abdominal findings Abdominal distention due to poor musculature Hepatomegaly due to fatty infiltration

1.2.5. Skin changes Dry, peeling skin with exposed areas Hyperpigmentation over areas of trauma

1.2.6. Nail changes Fissured or ridged

1.2.7. Hair changes Easily pulled out Thin, sparse, brittle

1.3. Behavioural changes

1.3.1. Irritability

1.3.2. Apathy

1.3.3. Decreased social responsiveness

1.3.4. Anxiety

1.3.5. Attention deficit

1.4. Slowing of linear growth

2. Diagnosis

2.1. Laboratory Investigations

2.1.1. Hematological studies Complete blood count Peripheral blood smear RBC indices

2.1.2. Protein nutritional status Serum albumin Retinol-binding protein Transferrin Creatinine Blood Urea Nitrogen

2.2. History including a detailed dietary history

2.3. Growth measurements

2.3.1. Weight

2.3.2. Length/Height

2.3.3. Head circumference

3. Treatment & Management

3.1. Dietary intervention

3.2. Increase food intake while avoiding refeeding syndrome

3.3. Treatment of infections

3.4. Follow ups to prevent relapse

4. Mortality/Morbidity

4.1. Cause of 300,000 deaths worldwide in children below 5 years of age

4.2. Contributes to more than half of deaths in childhood worldwide

4.3. Impairment of immunological functions result in increased predisposition to infections