Student Learning

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Student Learning by Mind Map: Student Learning

1. TPACK framework

1.1. TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology

1.1.1. requiring an understanding of the representation of concepts using technology.

1.1.2. requiring an understanding of pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content.

1.1.3. requiring an understanding of knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face.

1.1.4. requiring an understanding of how knowledge of students' prior knowledge and theories of epistemology.

1.1.5. requiring an understanding of knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.

1.2. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009) Too cool for school? No way! Using TPACK framework: You can have your hot tools and teach with them, too. Learning & leading with Technology, 36(7), 14-18

1.2.1. Quote: "Teaching is not a process of picking up a few instructional techniques and applying them. It emerges from thinking deeply about the nature of the discipline in conjunction with strategies for helping student learn that discipline over time."

1.2.2. Quote: "Teaching requires the transformation of content in ways that make it intellectually accessible to students."

1.2.3. Quote: "when technology is working well, effective teaching represents a 'dynamic equilibrium' between content, pedagogy, and technology."

1.3. repurposing technology

2. Technology

3. Content

3.1. Content Specific

3.1.1. computer programs/games that present information incrementally with questions to be answered by the learner

3.1.2. correct answers are rewarded and incorrect answers are remediated

3.1.3. do not teach children

3.1.4. behaviourist view of learning

3.2. Content- free technology

3.2.1. software or environment that is blank and can be applied to any content/subject domain

3.2.1.1. "Explain Everything'

3.2.2. students have to do something in this space

3.2.3. Constructionist view of learning

3.3. Prestridge, S & Finger, G. (2017) Chapter 15-Using ICT in Middle Years Classrooms. In Nan Bar, Donna Pendergast and Katherine Main (Eds) Teaching Middle Years: Rethinking Curriculum, Pedagogy and Assessment; Allen & Unwin.

3.3.1. From a 21st Century learning perspective, more effective student learning outcomes are enabled when constructivist ideologies encompass technology and content through collaborative inquiry based learning. Hence, there are a range of complex processes here, such as students connecting, communicating, collaborating, validating, publishing, propagating, innovating, and inspiring.

3.3.2. With regard to transdisciplinary approaches, ICT provide teachers with the opportunities to enable and encourage students to use a wide variety of digital tools to collaborate within teams and beyond classrooms, to use digital tools to curate, manage and organise content, and to create digital solutions to real world problems.

3.3.3. Quote: u “…the use of ICT to engage and enthuse middle years learners is a more purposeful beginning point.” (p. 272)

3.3.4. Quote: “Almost two-thirds of students want to use digital games for learning in school…53% say they have received better grades by using technology within learning.” (p. 267)

3.3.5. Quote: “In understanding how students use ICT, students’, teachers’ and parents’ voices and perspectives are of interest.”

4. Self-regulated learning

4.1. Time Management

4.2. Peer Learning

4.2.1. Is a process where peers learn from and teach each other, in formal and informal settings. Students benefit from problem solving and explaining information together through increased understanding of course content, as well as developing friendship, support networks and collegial skills

4.3. Effort Regulating

4.3.1. Sometimes referred to as 'grit', effort regulation is managing one's own efforts, particularly maintaining effort even when it is difficult, boring or overwhelming.

4.3.2. Effort regulation is important when working towards short term goals.

4.4. critical thinking

4.5. metacognition

4.5.1. thinking about thinking

4.5.2. employing metacognition when studying includes planning, monitoring and evaluation your efforts, regularly assessing and adjusting your method and the understanding being gained (or not gained)

5. Pedagogy

5.1. Ertmer, P.A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A.T., Sadik,O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & education, 59(2), 423-435.

5.1.1. Quote: "teachers who believed that technology was best used for collaboration purposes, described interesting projects in which students collaborated with local and distant peers."

5.1.2. Quote: "significant difference between high- and low-level users related not to the barriers" (p.52).

5.1.2.1. Even if access and resources were low, teachers might assign these barriers little weight due to strong beliefs about the role technology should play in the classroom

5.1.3. Quote: "by putting the responsibility of learning on students' shoulders, and employing technology as a motivational tool, students were succeeding beyond expectations."

5.1.4. Quote: "We are still woefully short of classroom environment that permit students to engage with technology in a way that prepares them to use technology in the real world."

5.2. Behaviourist-cognitivist

5.2.1. Knowledge exist external to the child and could be transmitted and received

5.2.1.1. Direct Instruction

5.2.1.1.1. teacher centred

5.3. constructivist- constructionist

5.3.1. Children construct reality from their perceptions; construct their own knowledge

5.3.1.1. Projects, Big questions, Investigation

5.3.1.1.1. student centred

6. ICT

6.1. Gonsky Report (2018): Through growth to achievement

6.1.1. Quote: “School education must also prepare students for a complex and rapidly changing world. As routine manual and administrative activities are increasingly automated, will require a higher level of skill, and more school leavers will need skills that are not easily replicated by machines, such as problem-solving, interactive and social skills, and critical and creative thinking (p. x).”

6.1.2. Priority two: Equip every child to be a creative, connected and engaged learner in a rapidly changing world (p.ix)

6.1.3. Quote: “School education must also prepare students for a complex and rapidly changing world. As routine manual and administrative activities are increasingly automated, will require a higher level of skill, and more school leavers will need skills that are not easily replicated by machines, such as problem-solving, interactive and social skills, and critical and creative thinking (p. x).”

6.2. Three approaches using ICT

6.2.1. supplementary

6.2.1.1. Dualistic View

6.2.2. Enrich

6.2.2.1. Multiplistic & Relativistic

6.2.3. Transform

6.2.3.1. Relativism

6.3. SOLE- approaches to using ICT

6.3.1. Self Organising Learning System

6.3.2. "first there is a little chaos but then out of common desire you learned together'

6.4. Prestridge, S., & Aldama, C. (2016). A classification framework for exploring technology-enabled practice- FrameTEP. Journal of Education Computing Researching, 54(7), 901-921

6.5. (Ertmer et al., 2012; Prestridge & de Aldama, 2016)

6.5.1. Categories for such technological appropriation have emerged from research such that teachers are using ICT to (1) Supplement the curriculum for productivity outcomes such as using ICT to motivate, reinforce or practice subject skills; (2) Augment or enrich the existing curriculum where ICT is considered a tool for teaching content, collaboration, higher order thinking; and (3) Leverage opportunities for transformative practices with ICT where new ways of working with ICT driven by students equally with curriculum requirements

6.6. Information and communication technologies

6.6.1. investigating

6.6.2. communicating

6.6.3. creating

7. Epistemology

7.1. epistemic Beliefs

7.1.1. Dualistic: right-or-wrong knowledge is handed down by authority

7.1.2. Multiplistic: multiple views but still believe that most knowledge is certain

7.1.3. Relativism: knowledge is uncertain and based on the weight of accumulation

7.1.4. Relativistic: most knowledge as tentative and contextual and generated by the self

7.2. Perry, W. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston

7.3. Theory of Knowledge

8. Special guess presentation - Jeff Scouter

8.1. Assistive technology for inclusive learning

8.1.1. 4 general areas of Assistive technology

8.1.1.1. Access: technologies to enable students to engage with the curriculum

8.1.1.2. Supportive: technologies to improve efficiency within learning episodes

8.1.1.3. Curriculum: applications to enhance learning in specific curriculum focus

8.1.1.4. Framework: applications to cater to learning needs

8.2. Curriculum intent

8.2.1. understanding what the curriculum is wanting the student to know

8.2.2. understanding the meaning of descriptors

8.2.3. responding to the curriculum is often less restrictive than what is thought or what is being provided

8.2.4. No assumptions about how students MUST engage and be assessed

8.2.5. we can make appropriate adjustments in assessment task allow the student to respond

8.3. Special Provisions and reasonable adjustments

8.3.1. involves the application of relevant syllabus criteria and standards against which achievement is judged

8.3.2. assessment criteria and standards are not modified to suit particular students

8.3.3. the school is required to maintain the intent and rigour of the requirements or components that are inherent or essential to the course of study

8.3.4. special provisions do not involve compensating for what the student does not know or cannot do.

9. IMPACT framework

9.1. I- inspire

9.1.1. Emotional connection to topic that motivates students

9.2. M- model

9.2.1. brain searches for visual information

9.3. P- practice

9.3.1. gradual release of responsibility and feedback

9.4. A- apply

9.4.1. Problem solving

9.5. C- connect

9.5.1. connecting with others

9.6. T- transform

9.6.1. create and design, making decisions