Molecules of Life

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Molecules of Life by Mind Map: Molecules of Life

1. Carbohydrates

1.1. Monosaccharides

1.1.1. Glucose

1.1.1.1. Main source of "E"

1.1.2. Fructose

1.1.2.1. Sweetest

1.1.3. Galactose

1.1.3.1. Found in milk

1.1.4. all three have same formula but different structures

1.2. Disaccharides

1.2.1. Two "monos" combined

1.2.2. "monos" Glucose and fructose combine to form "Di's" sucrose

1.3. Polysaccharides

1.3.1. three or more "monos"

1.3.2. animals store their glucose in the form of "poly" Glycogen

1.3.3. plants store their glucose in the form of "poly" starch

1.3.4. plants also male a large "poly" called cellulose

1.3.4.1. cellulose is what gives plants their rigidity

2. Proteins

2.1. Amino acids

2.1.1. 20 different; all share the same structure

2.2. composed of

2.2.1. Carbon

2.2.2. Hydrogen

2.2.3. Oxygen

2.2.4. Nitrogen

2.3. Dipeptides

2.3.1. Two amino acids bonded together

2.4. Polypeptides

2.4.1. these chains have 100 or more amino acids

2.5. Enzymes

2.5.1. Biological catalyst

2.5.2. Reduces activation energy

3. Lipids

3.1. Nonpolar organic molecule

3.2. Fatty acids make up most lipids

3.3. Triglycerides

3.3.1. three molecules of Fatty acids attached to a alcohol glycerol

3.4. Phospholiphids

3.4.1. only have two fatty acids attached to a glycerol

3.5. Waxes

3.5.1. a long fatty acid chain with a long alcohol chain

3.6. Steroids

3.6.1. composed of four carbon rings

3.6.2. many hormones are steroid compounds

4. Nucleic Acids

4.1. Large organic molecules

4.2. Types

4.2.1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

4.2.1.1. determines the characterics

4.2.2. Ribonucleic acid

4.2.2.1. stores and transfers DNA

4.2.3. Both are polymers