HRM is a strategic approach to managing employment capabilities is critical to achieving sustaina...

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HRM is a strategic approach to managing employment capabilities is critical to achieving sustainable competitive advantage, this being achieved throung a distinctive set of integreted employment policies, program and practices by Mind Map: HRM is a strategic approach to managing employment capabilities is critical to achieving sustainable competitive advantage, this being achieved throung a distinctive set of integreted employment policies, program and practices

1. Hard and soft model of HRM

1.1. Hard HRM

1.1.1. Def: is a process emphasizing ' the close integration of HR policies with business strategy which regards employees as a resource to be managed in the same rational way as any other resouce being exploited for maximum return

1.1.2. The band model of HRM may be summarised

1.1.2.1. It philosophy towards managing people is rational quantitative explicitly business- oriented

1.1.2.2. It regards employees as a resource of the Organization, ti be managed in a rational and strategic manner as any other economic resource

1.1.2.3. It emphasises the interests, role and authority of management over those of employee

1.1.2.4. The interests of the owners and managers business are diffirent from those of the workers

1.1.2.4.1. Organization are therefore political systems which there is competitive for scarce power and resouce

1.1.2.4.2. Worker must be controlled in order to ensure that they perform in the organization's interest

1.1.3. Feature of HRM

1.1.3.1. A close matching or integration of the strategic objectives of the Hr function with the business strategy of the Organization

1.1.3.2. A focus on quantitive, business- strategic objectives and criteria for management

1.1.3.3. An emphasis on the need for performance management and other form of managerial control

1.2. Soft HRM

1.2.1. Def: is a process whereby employees are viewed as' valued assets' and a source of competitive advantage through theri commitment, adaptability and high level of skills and performance

1.2.2. The soft model of HRM may be summarised as follows.

1.2.2.1. ) Its philosophy towards managing people is based in the human and neo-human relations schools of management thought, which emphasized (relationships, attitudes, motivation, leadership, communication)

1.2.2.2. treating employees as valued assets, a source of competitive advantage through their commitment, adaptability and high quality

1.2.2.3. mutuality: management and employees can and should coincide in shared organizational goals, working as members of an integrated team

1.2.3. The main features of soft HRM

1.2.3.1. emphasis on the human relations aspect of people management, stressing security of employment, continuous development, communication, involvement and the quality of working life.

1.2.3.2. socio-psychological and cultural objectives and criteria for management.

1.2.3.3. The need to gain the trust and commitment of employees – not merely compliance with control mechanisms.

2. Functions

2.1. Organization

2.1.1. Organization design

2.1.2. Organization development

2.1.3. Job/role design and definition

2.1.4. Flexible working

2.2. HR planning and resourcing

2.2.1. HR planning

2.2.2. Talent management

2.2.3. Recruitment

2.2.4. Selection

2.2.5. Retention

2.2.6. Exit management

2.3. Performance management

2.3.1. Objective and competence requirement setting

2.3.2. Discipline handing

2.3.3. Identifying learing

2.3.4. Development needs

2.4. Reward management

2.4.1. Pay systems : developing and managing salary structures, system and scales

2.4.2. Performance pay systems : developingand managing ways of relating pay progrssyon or bonuses of performance

2.4.3. Benefit schemes : developing and managing employee entitlements and 'fringe' benefits

2.4.4. Non- financial rewards : building non-monetary rewards inti job design and management style, as part of a ' total reward' package

2.5. HR development

2.5.1. Learning organization

2.5.2. Education and tranning

2.5.3. Personal development

2.5.4. Career management

2.5.5. Managerial development

2.6. Healt, safety, and welfare

2.6.1. Occupational health and safety: monitoring and managing work environments, practices and culture to ensure that employees are protected from health hazards and accidents

2.6.2. Welfare services : providing services such as catering or recreatinonal facilities, individual counselling and support

2.7. Employee relations

2.7.1. Industrial relations

2.7.2. Employee communication

2.7.3. Employee voice

2.8. HR services

2.8.1. Managing the employment relationship

2.8.2. HR policies and procedures

2.8.3. HR information systems

2.8.4. Compliance

3. Classification

3.1. The utilization of people at work

3.2. The motivate of people at work

3.3. The protection of people at work

4. Best fit and best prcatice

4.1. Best fit

4.1.1. Definition: reflects local HRM practices that consider culture and local industry practices

4.2. Best practice

4.2.1. Definition: are a series of activities that reflect industry or international standards related to relationship between employees and employers

4.3. The ' Best Fit' approach vs ' Best Practice

4.3.1. Fit as contigency: ensuring that internal practices suit the particular( and changing ) context of the firm and ist business strategy

4.3.1.1. The ' best fit' approach( or contingency approach) is based pn the belief that there is no' one best way' or set of universal prescriptions for strategy : it all depends

4.3.2. Fit as an ideal set of practices: ensuring that internal practices reflect' best practice'.

4.3.2.1. The best practice approach is based on the belief that adopting certain broadly- applicable HRM practices will lead to superior organizational performance

5. Strategic HRM

5.1. Deinition

5.1.1. Strategic management ‘denotes a specific pattern of decisions and actions undertaken by the upper echelon of an organization in order to accomplish specific outcomes and/or performance goals’.

5.1.2. the process of linking the human resource function with the strategic objectives of the organization in order to improve performance’

5.2. Strategic integration or fit

5.2.1. The concept of strategic fit is central to strategic HRM, a firm must:

5.2.1.1. Match its capabilities and resources to the opportunities and constraints of the external environment

5.2.1.2. Match the macro features of the organisation: mission, strategy, structure, technology, products and services, culture and workforce

5.2.2. aspects to strategic fit in HRM terms

5.2.2.1. Developing HR strategies that are integrated with the business strategy and support its achievement

5.2.2.2. Developing integrated HR practices (resourcing, reward, development and so on)

5.2.2.3. + Encouraging line managers to realise and internalise the importance of human resources

6. Mission