MODAL AUXILIARIES

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MODAL AUXILIARIES by Mind Map: MODAL AUXILIARIES

1. REQUEST AND GIVING PERMISSION

1.1. Formal

1.1.1. Should

1.1.2. Could

1.1.3. May

1.2. Informal

1.2.1. Can

1.2.2. Will

1.3. Explanation

1.3.1. Could and soul d are common in both informal and formal situation. May is rather formal. People of diffetent age groups and people who perform services, such as waitres or salespeople often use it.

1.3.2. Can and will are informal friend or people in the same age group use Can and will in informal conversation pelase makes any request polite.

1.4. Examples

1.4.1. Can you pass the salt please?

1.4.2. Could you bring your book tomorrow?

1.4.3. Can you pass the juice?

1.4.4. Can you turn off the air conditioner?

1.4.5. Could you pass the controll please?

1.4.6. Could you help me with my homework?

1.4.7. Should you study more.

1.4.8. Will you go to the party?

1.4.9. Will you visit your mom?

1.4.10. Should I learn more thechniques about fight

2. EXPRESING ABILITY

2.1. Can

2.1.1. Explanaition

2.1.1.1. Can express present ability. Its sometimes difficult to hear the difference between Can and cant in rapid speech.

2.2. Could

2.2.1. Explanaition

2.2.1.1. Could has several meanings, depending on the context of the sentence. When could expresses ability it refers to the past.

2.3. Be able to + verb

2.3.1. Expresses ability in the past present or future.

2.4. Examples

2.4.1. I Can play the guitar

2.4.2. She Can speak german

2.4.3. My mom Can swim well

2.4.4. She could sing very well when she was young

2.4.5. They could read when she they were 4 years

2.4.6. I will be able to drive a car in 2 years

2.4.7. He will be able to buy a house next year

2.4.8. She has been able to visit many countries in my life

2.4.9. Adrián will be able to finish by tomorrow

2.4.10. They can drive a car

3. EXPRESSING NEED OR OBLIGATION

3.1. Must

3.1.1. In affirmative statements must expresses need or obligation

3.2. Must not

3.2.1. In negative statemts must not expresses a strong need to do something or a prohibición.

3.3. Have to

3.3.1. To expresses present or future need use have/ has to or will have to

3.4. Had to

3.4.1. Had to expresses a past need or obligation.

3.5. Examples

3.5.1. I must go to buy eggs

3.5.2. I must study every day for my exam

3.5.3. You must be polite with the guests

3.5.4. They mustn’t smoke here

3.5.5. She mustn’t shout at your brothers

3.5.6. Must we go to the school

3.5.7. We have to do sports every day

3.5.8. I have had to buy a car

3.5.9. I have had to buy glasses

3.5.10. Must you go the party

4. EXPRESSING POSIBILITY

4.1. May

4.1.1. Express the idea of maybe perhaps or its possible. May never appears in questions about possiblities.

4.2. Might

4.2.1. Already appears in questions

4.3. Could

4.3.1. Appears less often than May or might to express possbility

4.4. May not, might not

4.4.1. Mean Maybe not

4.5. Examples

4.5.1. I may dinner at 7:00 pm

4.5.2. She might work late tonight

4.5.3. I may go to the party

4.5.4. Where are my keys? They might be in the car

4.5.5. Everyone is wearing a jacket. It must be cold

4.5.6. He must be tired

4.5.7. He might have brougth the cake

4.5.8. She may have gone home early

4.5.9. They could have worked late

4.5.10. He must have won the game

5. EXPRESSING IMPOSSIBILITY OR DISBELIEF

5.1. Cant, couldnt

5.1.1. Often express the idea of imposibily. They shows surprise or shock.

5.2. I can’t drive a truck

5.3. You can’t speak English

5.4. You couldn’t drive a motorcycle

5.5. You couldn’t eat pizza

5.6. You can’t smoke in the restaurant

5.7. You can’t drink alcohool

5.8. They couldn’t speak lourder

5.9. She can’t play soccer

5.10. My father can’t speak Portuguese

5.11. My mom can’t turn off the tv.

6. EXPRESSING PROBABILITY

6.1. Must, must not

6.2. Examples

6.2.1. She must be on the bus

6.2.2. She must not on the trip

6.2.3. She must be on the airplane

6.2.4. She must not buy a house

6.2.5. She must come soon

6.2.6. They must play video games

6.2.7. They must not fight with us

6.2.8. I must be on the market

6.2.9. You must eat veggies for your healt

6.2.10. You must have forgotten about our date

7. EXPRESSING LACK OF NEED

7.1. Not have to

7.1.1. Expresses the idea that something is, was, or will not be necessary. The opposit of must and have to

7.2. Examples

7.2.1. I not have to stay in home with the baby

7.2.2. We not have to ask him if he want to buy

7.2.3. I not have to answer a lot emails

7.2.4. She not has to clock the door when she leaves.

7.2.5. We not have to stay tight eat

7.2.6. She not has to pay the ticket

7.2.7. They not have to play

7.2.8. I not have to do the final examen

7.2.9. Adrian not has to ride a by cicle

8. EXPRESSING PREFERENCES

8.1. Would like

8.1.1. Would like expresses desires for things that havent happened yet.

8.2. Would rather

8.2.1. Would rather expresses preferences or choices. Not come after rather in the negative.

8.3. Examples

8.3.1. We would like some ice cream

8.3.2. She would like eat pasta

8.3.3. They would like play soccer

8.3.4. My father would like drink water

8.3.5. My mom would like go to LA

8.3.6. We would rather come to school by bus than walk

8.3.7. She would rather sit in the sun

8.3.8. He would rather study for his english class than for his math class

8.3.9. We would rather go to the party than clean the house

8.3.10. I would rather play video games than run

9. GIVING ADVICE

9.1. Ought to, should

9.1.1. Both should and ought to Can give advice. Ought to is not common in questions or negatives, however.

9.2. Had better

9.2.1. Had better is stronger than should or ought to. It does not appear in affirmative questions.

9.3. Examples

9.3.1. You ought to practice more

9.3.2. Whit this temperature you ought to visit the doctor

9.3.3. You had better go to the dentist

9.3.4. You ought not to spend so much money

9.3.5. The had better not to do that

9.3.6. He ought to behave a lot better

9.3.7. She ought no to plead guilty

9.3.8. I had better go or my parents will tell me off

9.3.9. You had better buy the tickets now

9.3.10. We ought to go out tonight

10. Requests with borrow and lend

10.1. Borrow

10.1.1. May

10.1.2. Could

10.1.3. Can

10.1.4. You ask to borrow something from someone

10.2. Lend

10.2.1. Would

10.2.2. Could

10.2.3. Will

10.2.4. You ask someone to lend you something( give it in a period of time)

11. Expressing expectation

11.1. Ought to should

11.1.1. Should and ought to sometimes express expectation. They mean expect to or will probably. Ought to seldom occurs in questions or negative statments.

11.1.2. Examples

11.1.2.1. Helen ought to be more careful

11.1.2.2. They ought to be here today

11.1.2.3. Tom ought to take her home

11.1.2.4. It ought to work properly

11.1.2.5. You ought to eat more vegetables

11.1.2.6. They should be here soon

11.1.2.7. I believe he should love me

11.1.2.8. I believe 200 dollars should be enough for the trip

11.1.2.9. They should cheat on the English exam

11.1.2.10. That soccer player should not dive all the time.