Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

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Cuban Missile Crisis by Mind Map: Cuban Missile Crisis

1. Why did the USSR put missiles in Cuba

1.1. To bargain with the USA

1.1.1. The USSR could receive concessions for removing the missiles

1.2. To test the USA- To see if they would back off or face up

1.3. To trap USA-So they would find the nukes and be bought into a war

1.4. To close the missile gaps- So the USA would not strike first

1.5. To defend Cuba

1.5.1. Was the only Communist country in the Western Hemisphere

1.5.2. Castro was a great propagandanist

1.6. To strengthen his position in the USSR

1.6.1. Had to show that he was stronger than the US. Thus removing critics

2. Origins

2.1. The US vs USSR Arms Race

2.1.1. Ability To Destroy Either Side

2.1.2. Nuclear Deterrent

2.2. Cuban Revolution

2.2.1. Most businesses owned by the US

2.2.2. Huge Naval Base (Guantánamo)

2.2.3. America had been supporting the previous leader

2.2.3.1. General Batista

2.2.3.1.1. Dictator

2.2.3.1.2. Corrupt

2.2.3.1.3. Unpopular

2.2.3.1.4. Opposed Communism

2.2.4. 1959 Batista Overthrown

2.2.4.1. Fidel Castro Replaces Him

2.2.4.1.1. Charming

2.2.4.1.2. Clever

2.2.4.1.3. Ruthless

2.2.4.1.4. Propagandist

2.2.4.1.5. Recognized By The US As A Legitimate Leader

2.2.4.1.6. Took Over Some of The American Businesses

2.2.4.1.7. Thousands Exiled

2.2.4.2. USA's Response

2.2.4.2.1. Eisenhower authorities CIA to investigate how to overthrow Castro

2.2.4.2.2. Castro Responds

2.3. The "Bay Of Pigs" Invasion

2.3.1. Jan 1961 JF Kennedy broke off Diplomatic Relations

2.3.1.1. Jan 1961 JF Kennedy broke off Diplomatic Relations

2.3.2. JFK implemented a plan made by Eisenhower

2.3.2.1. The USA Supplied Arms,Equipment and Transport

2.3.2.2. 1400 anti-Castro exiles would invade

2.3.3. April 1961 Exiles Landed

2.3.3.1. Met by 20,000 Cuban Troops

2.3.3.1.1. They had Modern Weapons and Tanks

2.3.4. Impact

2.3.4.1. It showed the US did not want to get fully involved

2.3.4.2. Khrushchev scorned Kennedy's pathetic attempt to make Cuba anti-communist

2.3.4.3. Strengthened Castro's position in Cuba

2.3.4.4. Kennedy was seen as weak

2.3.4.4.1. Castro and Khrushchev became suspicious of US policy

2.4. October Crisis

2.4.1. Khrushchev Arms Castro

2.4.1.1. Americans Alarmed

2.4.1.1.1. Did not think USSR would put in Nukes

2.4.1.2. Best Equipped in Latin America

2.4.1.2.1. Thousands of Soviet Missiles, Patrol Boats, Tanks, Radar Vans, Missile Erectors,Jet Bombers+Fighters and 5000 Soviet technicians

2.4.2. US discovers nuclear sites

2.4.2.1. 14th October 1962-An American spy plane took detailed images of USSR Nuclear missile sites

2.4.2.1.1. Despite USSR's reassurances

2.4.2.2. Some Already Had Nukes on site

2.4.2.3. Others were being built

2.4.2.4. 20 USSR ships were on their way to Cuba carrying missiles

3. Consequences

3.1. Kennedy

3.1.1. Improved reputation in the US and the West

3.1.2. Resisted pressure from his own government

3.1.3. Secretly agreed to remove missiles from Turkey

3.1.3.1. NATO allies were unhappy

3.1.3.2. They agreed it was better than the Nuclear war

3.1.4. Kennedy had to accept Cuba as a communist state

3.2. Cold War

3.2.1. Helped relations between the USA and USSR

3.2.1.1. A hotline between the Kremlin and White House was set up

3.2.1.2. 1963-Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed

3.2.1.2.1. Limited Tests

3.2.1.2.2. Still allowed for weapons to be devloped

3.3. Khrushchev

3.3.1. Public saw him as a capable responsible peacemaker

3.3.2. Got America to remove its nukes in Turkey

3.3.2.1. Unable to use it for propaganda

3.3.3. USA criticized by its own allies

3.3.3.1. Britan

3.3.3.1.1. Hypocritical

3.3.4. 1964-Forced from power by his enemies inside the USSR

3.4. USSR

3.4.1. The USSR had kept Cuba safe

3.4.1.1. Good ally and base of support for communism in South America

3.4.2. Humiliated because of Khrushchev's agreement with the USA

3.4.3. Still behind in the arms race

3.5. Castro's Cuba

3.5.1. Castro was upset by the deal but had to accept it to keep USSR support

3.5.2. Stayed Communist

3.5.3. Nuclear Bombs removed

3.5.4. Kept control of American companies and economic resources that had been nationalized

4. Events 1962

4.1. 16 October-JFK Informed of the missile build up. Ex Comm informed

4.1.1. Ex Comm=The Executive Committee of the National Security Council

4.2. 20 October-Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba

4.3. 22 October- Blockade announced and Soviet Union is called to withdraw its missiles

4.4. 23 October- Kennedy receives a letter Khrushchev telling him that the USSR ships would observe the blockade

4.4.1. Did not admit to Nukes

4.5. 24 October- Blockade began

4.5.1. First USSR missiles ships+ submarine arrive

4.5.2. 10:32am-20 Soviet ships closest to the blockade turned around

4.6. 25 October- Intensive aerial photography revealed that work on the missiles had intensified

4.7. 26 October- Kennedy receives a long personal letter from Khrushchev

4.7.1. Claimed Missiles were defensive

4.7.2. If JFK promised not to attack and remove his blockade, Khrushchev would remove the nukes

4.8. 27 October a.m

4.8.1. Khrushchev sends second letter revising his agreement. If USA removed nukes from Turkey the USSR would remove them from Cuba

4.8.2. American U2 plane shot down over Cuba

4.8.2.1. Pilot killed

4.8.2.2. JFK advised to retaliate against Cuba

4.9. 27 October p.m - Kennedy delays an attack

4.9.1. Ignored 2nd letter but agreed to 1st letter

4.10. 28 October- Khrushchev replies to Kennedy

4.10.1. Soviet Gov. given new orders to dismantle their arms, to prevent attack from the USA