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1. ACE Inhibitors, Beta blockers, Diuretics, Inotropes, Digoxin, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, dietary management (American Heart Association, 2017)

2. Occurs due to conditions that have damaged, weakened, or stiffened the heart (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

3. Right Sided Heart Failure

3.1. Description: Fluid backs up into tissues (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

3.2. Examples: Third spacing to legs, feet, and abdomen and JVD, Cor pulmonale (McCance & Heuther, 2019)

4. Left Sided Heart Failure

4.1. Description: Fluid backs up into lungs (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

4.2. Examples: Pleural effusion, pulmonary congestion, cyanosis (McCance & Heuther, 2019).

5. Systolic Heart Failure

5.1. Description: Left ventricle cannot squeeze vigorously (Pumping problem) (Mayo Clinic, 2017)

5.2. Low EF, weak and thin heart muscle, S3 Gallop

6. Diastolic Heart Failure

6.1. Description: Left ventricle cannot relax properly (Filling problem) (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

6.2. Normal EF, stiff and thick heart muscle, S4 Gallop (AHA, 2017).

7. Causes:

7.1. Examples of conditions: CAD, HTN, faulty heart valves, cardiomyopathy, congenital defects, myocarditis (Mayo Clinic, 2017)

8. Complications:

8.1. Kidney Failure: Reduced blood flow to kidney's due to heart failure can cause permanent damage if not treated (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

8.2. Heart Valves issues

8.3. Cardiac Arrythmias

8.4. Liver Failure: The build-up of fluid can put pressure on the liver, which can cause scarring (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

9. Symptoms:

9.1. Shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, cough, swelling, irregular heart beat (Mayo Clinic, 2017).

10. Treatment: