Ecology of the Family

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Ecology of the Family by Mind Map: Ecology of the Family

1. Family: Any two or more related people living in one household

1.1. Nuclear Family: consisiting of father, mother, children.

1.2. Family or Orientation: born into

1.3. Family of Procreation: you create

1.4. Extended, Matriarchal, Patriarchal, Egalitarian

2. Family Systems: Basic Functions

2.1. Reproduction, Socialization, Assignment of Social Roles, Economic Support, Nurturance/Emotional Support

2.1.1. All of these have changed througout time as society/culture changes (Industrial revolution, feminist revolution, civil rights...)

3. Family Transitions: Structural/Functional Changes

3.1. Divorce

3.1.1. 64% of children 0-17 lived with two married parents

3.1.2. Most stressful on single mother (and children). Children living in mother-only families were four times as likely to be poor.

3.1.3. Responsiblities and roles change amongst whole family. Not as much emotional support.

3.1.4. The attitiude of the divorced parents and relationship between them is key to helping children cope. Boys struggle most.

3.1.5. Joint custody: Binuclear family, children are part of two homes and two family groups Kin custody: grandparents most common

3.2. Step Families: most common unrealistic expectation is the beliefe in instant love.

3.2.1. those who have children come from both parents tend to have most behavioral problems

3.3. Adopted: tell children in a way the child can understand based on age and maturity.

3.4. Dual earner: hard to find time, mixed schedules, added stress.

4. Family of Diverse Parents

4.1. higher incidence of poverty, poor academic performance, emotional/beahvioral problems, and substance abuse for those growing up without married parents.

4.2. Children of interracial and homosexual parents can face issues like bulying or outcasted due to stigmatism

5. Macrosystem Influences: SES

5.1. SES: rank or position within a society, based on social and economic factors

5.1.1. ascribed status: position determined by fmaily lineage, gender, birth order, or skin color (Traditional Societies)

5.1.2. acheived status: position determined by education, occupation, income, place of residence (Modern Societies)

5.1.3. SES is defined by

5.1.3.1. Material/Financial Capital (economic resources)

5.1.3.2. Human Capital (knowledge and skills)

5.1.3.3. Social Capital (connections, status, power, social network)

5.1.3.4. Two Major Social Causation Models

5.1.3.4.1. Family Stress Model: economic difficulties have an adverse effect on parents' emotions, behaviors, and relationships

5.1.3.4.2. Extended Investement Model: When you have it, you most likely can continue to give it to your children, and vice versa

5.2. Social Class Differences

5.2.1. Upper class: child regarded as carrier of the family name, heritage, and status. Pressures come from nuclear family and extended. More verbal and democratic

5.2.2. Middle Class: more likely to use reasoning with children, and non-physical forms of discipline. Emphasize comformity, to look toward the future.

5.2.3. Lower Class: often identified as slow learners, aggessors, and truants. higher birth defects. Parents found to be more dominant, controlling, and punitive. Options for punishment is more limited, often turning to directives and physical for noncompliance. Children are exposed to more illness, disease, drugs, homelessness, crime...

5.3. Social class socialization theories

6. Macrosystem Influences: Ethnic Orientation (and Religion)

6.1. Gemeinschaft: communal, cooperative, close, intimate, and informal interpersonal relationships

6.1.1. Interpersonal relationships: close, intimate, informal

6.1.2. Authority patterns: autocratic, established hierarchy with ascribed rights, customs of community are adhered to and respected, personal opinions and beliefs are private

6.1.3. Collectivism: emphasis on interdepndent relations, social responsiblities, and the well-being of the group ("fitting in").

6.1.3.1. About 70% of the worlds culture woudl be described this way

6.2. Gesellschaft: associative, practical, objective, and formal interpersonal relationships

6.2.1. Interpersonal relationships: associative, practical, objective, and formal

6.2.2. Authority patterns: democratic, public discussions and social sanctions are estabished by consensus, political control, fairness, and equal rights are emphasized.

6.2.3. Individualism: emphasis on individual fulfillment and choice ("standing out)

6.3. Five basic questions humans in all places and circumstances must answer to understand cultural diversity and socialization

6.3.1. How do humans relate to each other? (individualistic or belonging to group?)

6.3.2. What is the significant time dimension? (past, present, future?"

6.3.3. What is the valued personality type? (being or doing?)

6.3.4. What is the relationship of humans to nature?

6.3.5. What are the innate predispositions of humans? (Evil, Neutral, Good?)

6.4. 78.4% of adults report belonging to various forms of Christianity

7. Chronosystem Influences: Political, Economic, Technilogical

7.1. Immigration, Foreign, and Domestic Policies

7.1.1. Children of immigrants express higher educational, motivational, and economic mobility apsirations than U.S. peers

7.2. Reduced levels of evonoimc well-being causes more parental stress, less affection, and less effective disciplinary interactions. Children then have more negative social relations with peers.

8. Family Empowerment

8.1. Functional families - Resilient

8.1.1. Display love and acceptance

8.1.2. Communicativeness

8.1.3. Cohesiveness

8.1.4. Communcation of values and standards

8.1.5. Ability to cope effectively with problems

8.2. Empowerment: enabling individuals to have control over resources affecting them