Demand side management (DSM) – involves the policies, programmes, and projects employed to alter the quantity and patterns of energy consumption, and therefore necessary production, by focusing on customer (or end-user) oriented energy reduction plans. DSM programme – has a specific goal and target group. It can be initiated by governmental or other organisations. DSM programme is distinguished from a DSM policy, which has a broader target group and goal. DSM Programmes are often implemented through projects. DSM Programme is distinguished from DSM projects, since programmes are usually more long term and strategic than projects. CHANGING BEHAVIOUR studies both DSM programmes and individual projects that are implemented within or in anticipation of a broader programme. This is in line with definitions by IEA-DSM (International Energy Agency’s Demand-Side Management Programme ) and the EU Energy services directive , both of which take the view that “policy measure” is (in the DSM context) a specific type of political action or market intervention designed to persuade energy consumers to reduce energy use and encourage market parties to promote energy-efficient goods and services, whereas “programme” is an organised set of projects targeted towards defined market parties over a specific time period to achieve increased end-use efficiency or reduced use of energy services. Aims of DSM programmes – are related to increasing energy efficiency or promoting energy conservation, including: programmes promoting changing end-user behaviour programmes promoting the use of energy-efficient products programmes for load management that mainly aim at changing the pattern of energy use provided there is a clear link to energy conservation programmes for end-user generation and energy self-sufficiency provided there is a clear link to energy conservation broader low-carbon, environmental or sustainable lifestyle/business/region programmes provided there is a clear link to energy conservation Targets of DSM programmes – include households, schools, the building sector, municipalities and SMEs, for example: energy audits for SMEs, households or buildings programmes promoting energy efficient building design, renovation and usage training and capacity development programmes campaigns and competitions for consumers, schools, office personnel, and other target groups  See, http://www.managenergy.net/actors/A1648.htm  Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.
Financial instruments - are made available by public or private bodies in order to cover partly or totally the initial project cost for implementing energy efficiency improvement measures.  Financial instruments provide economic incentives to promote energy efficiency. They aim to encourage investment in energy efficient equipment and processes by reducing the investment cost; they thus mainly apply to investment (efficiency) behaviour rather than to curtailment behaviour.  Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC.
contracting and 3rd party financing
Command-and-control instruments – laws and regulations that set energy efficiency requirements for devices, practices or systems design. Typical regulations relating to energy efficiency are building codes and minimum energy performance standards.   IEA DSM 2005 Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policy Measures and DSM Programmes
Informative instruments –provide information and energy saving techniques to consumers with the aim of influencing energy savings/efficiency behaviour. Often referred to as a ‘soft’ DSM measure.   Adapted from Nadal, S. 1992. Utility demand-side management experience and potential: A critical review. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 17:507–535.
Information and education campaigns
Metering and feedback
Context – the interrelated conditions and institutional, cultural, political, social and economic processes at multiple levels or scales that influence or are influenced by a particular situation, actor or process. Dimensions of context – in terms of the different actors, factors and issues these may consist of various dimensions, including: social context (social norms, values, relations and patterns of interaction), cultural context (ideas, customs and rules of behaviour), institutional context (formal rules, responsibilities and governance systems), political context (current political agendas) and economic context (patterns and institutions of financial transactions).  Macro, meso and micro levels of context - for analytical purposes, we can examine context at various levels: macro (national and international), meso (regional, urban and district) and micro (the immediate social and physical context of the target group). We can also analyse the ways in which complex dynamics between these different levels influence or are influenced by a particular situation, actor or process. That is to say, the ways in which multi-level actors, factors and issues contribute to the shaping of a particular situation, actor or process or vice versa. Context-tailored – where a demand-side management programme or an instrument or a technology is adapted to or configured to match with the conditions of the user’s or target group’s context.  Adapted from: Kuper, A. & Kuper, J. (1985). The Social Science Encyclopedia. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Effectiveness - refers to the impacts of the programme by reaching the intended goals and realizing benefits in a broader energy context and in a way that is lasting. High effectiveness leads to a programme being successful and low effectiveness as unsuccessful. A DSM programme that has high effectiveness: 1. Has an effect in the broader energy context, a positive (reducing) effect on total energy consumption. In other words, the effectiveness of a DSM program is measured by means of the share of energy saved / total energy consumption or energy conservation potential (not always a relevant criterion). This measure should help us identify the relevance of the programme for overall energy conservation goals. 2. Has reached the desired effect (behavioural change and energy savings) aimed for in the target group, in other words the goals as set out in the programme were achieved. Whether or not these goals have been achieved is judged by means of evaluation of the programme. This evaluation can either be done internally by the implementers of the programme, or if that is not available, by external partners conducting an analysis of the match between the initial objectives of the programme and its final results. With the above indicators in mind, a 'totally successful' effectiveness would consist of a programme that has achieved durable energy savings and behavioural changes.
Efficiency - refers to the way in which the programme achieves its goals and effects. A DSM programme that has high efficiency uses resources cost-effectively. Cost effectiveness can be measured by identifying the ratio of resources used to energy saved/other desired outcome achieved: programme funding/energy saved. For example, a programme that achieves about 5% energy savings can look quite modest (unsuccessful), but if it is achieved at low cost with high citizen involvement it is still very effective. An efficient programme meets its goals within the intended time-scale and budget.
Social learning - an emphasis on effectiveness and efficiency in outcomes tells us little about the processes of embedding a DSM programme and achieving 'acceptance' amongst the multiplicity of social interests involved, including target groups. Social learning in DSM programmes, thus, focuses on the process of embedding DSM programmes with target groups and users. A commitment to process requires not post hoc evaluations but formative engagement with the embedding of DSM processes in 'real time'. Social learning addresses the often different motivations for involvement in DSM programmes of different institutions, organisations and actors. In particular it necessitates a focus on interactions, which may be in conflict, and the processes through which these may be effectively aligned through the learning by doing, and the reflexive development of mutual and shared understanding.
Actors – individual agents or social groups both within and outside of the scope of DSM programmes. Actors within the scope of DSM programmes include project partners, target groups, and intermediaries.
Project partners – actors that are part of a project team working on a DSM programme. Project partners can include target group members, e.g., when coaches are recruited from the target group.
Intermediaries – organisations that mediate, make connections, enable a relationship between different persons or issues. Intermediaries play an active role negotiating the relationship between other actors. Intermediaries are not simply arbitrators; they play a role in ordering and defining relationships.  Energy service company (ESCO) – a natural or legal person that delivers energy services and/or other energy efficiency improvement measures in a user's facility or premises, and accepts some degree of financial risk in so doing. The payment for the services delivered is based (either wholly or in part) on the achievement of energy efficiency improvements and on the meeting of the other agreed performance criteria. Project intermediaries  – can be consultants offering ‘shared savings’ energy conservation, facility managers operating heating/power appliances for industrial users and managers of grid and distribution networks, or energy trading associations of end-users and consumer associations informing private households on ways of cutting bills by using less energy. Systemic intermediaries  – manage transitions in energy systems in particular places and actively seek to re-shape energy infrastructures. Intermediaries build this capacity through multi-level networks of “relevant” social interests including political support, economic leverage, technology suppliers, etc. and “appropriate” resources such as forms of local knowledge, local political support, corporate investment, national political and financial support, etc.  Marvin, S. and Medd, W. (2004) ‘Sustainable Infrastructures by Proxy? Intermediation beyond the Production–Consumption Nexus’. Southerton, D., Chappells, H. and van Vliet, B. (Eds). Sustainable consumption: the implications of changing infrastructures of provision, Edward Elgar.  Hodson, M. and Marvin, S. (2008) ‘How can more “effective” intermediation build urban ecological security’? Forthcoming in Regions.  Hodson, M. and Marvin, S. (2008) ‘How can more “effective” intermediation build urban ecological security’? Forthcoming in Regions.
Target groups – particular groups of actors that an invention aims at (e.g. households, schools, the building sector, municipalities and SMEs).
Stakeholders – persons or groups that hold legitimate interest in the scope of the project or programme.  Network of stakeholders – actors and stakeholders, which have relevant relations among each other, not only with the programme or project. These relations can be social, or relate to value chains or supply chains, or other co-operative or competitive relations.  Stakeholder interaction – involves an exchange of knowledge between the project or programme and its stakeholders; can also be a way for the parties to influence each other. Interaction can occur via the media or surveys, in formal participation processes, or in naturally occurring face-to-face situations.   Adapted from Freeman 1984 and Donaldson and Preston 1995: Freeman, R.E. 1984. Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman; Donaldson, T. and Preston, L.E. 1995. The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20: 65 – 91.  Adapted from Bunn, M.D., Savage, G.T. & Holloway, B.B. (2002). Stakeholder analysis for multi-sector innovations. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 17 (2/3): 181-203.  E. Heiskanen, M. Hodson, R.P.J.M. Raven, C.F.J. Feenstra, A. Alcantud, B. Brohmann, A. Daniels, M. Di Fiore, B. Farkas, U. Fritsche, J. Fucsko, K. Hünecke, E. Jolivet, M. Maack, K. Matschoss, A. Oniszk-Poplawska, B. Poti, G. Prasad, B. Schaefer, R. Willemse (2007). Factors influencing the societal acceptance of new energy technologies : meta-analysis of recent European projects. Create Acceptance. FP6-2004-Energy-3, SUSTDEV-1.2.8. Proposal/Contract no.: 518351. Petten: ECN Policy Studies.
We examine DSM programmes with objectives of increasing energy efficiency or promoting energy conservation, including: programmes promoting changing end-user behaviour programmes promoting the use of energy-efficient products programmes for load management that mainly aim at changing the pattern of energy use provided there is a clear link to energy conservation programmes for end-user generation and energy self-sufficiency provided there is a clear link to energy conservation broader low-carbon, environmental or sustainable lifestyle/business/region programmes provided there is a clear link to energy conservation.
How individuals and organisations behave and make energy related choices and decisions, depends on multiple interconnected behavioural determinants. These determinants consist of i.e. preferences, psychological issues, lifestyle, economic situation, political culture, capacities amongst others. These behavioural determinants can be categorised in several ways. A specific model of the determinants of enery related behaviour will be elaborated during the CHANGING BEHAVIOUR project, and later be included in this glossary.