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1. What is Media?

1.1. DEFINING MEDIA -The communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television), and advertising.

1.1.1. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS -In the communication process, a medium is a channel or system of communication—the means by which information (the message) is transmitted between a speaker or writer (the sender) and an audience (the receiver). The plural form is media, and the term is also known as a channel.

1.1.2. THE FEEDBACK MECHANISM -It occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. The system can then be said to feed back into itself. The notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to feedback systems: Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based upon cause and effect tricky, and it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole. Source -Communication skills -Attitudes -Knowledge -Social systems -Culture Message -Content -Elements -Treatment -Structure -Code Channel -Seeing -Hearing -Touching -Smelling -Tasting Receiver -Communication skills -Attitudes -Knowledge -Social systems -Culture

1.1.3. MEDIA AS AN INFORMATION INDUSTRY -It comprises a group of enterprises and organizations whose purpose is to produce and process information and to develop the infrastructure and delivery mechanisms to distribute information. FILM INDUSTRY -It consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i.e. film production companies, film studios, cinematography, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel. BROADCAST INDUSTRY -It consists of radio and television stations and networks that create content or acquire the right to broadcast prerecorded television and radio programs. Networks transmit their signals from broadcasting studios via satellite signals to local stations or cable distributors. PUBLISHING INDUSTRY -It is the business of making information available to the public, particularly the sale or dissemination of literature, music, or information using both digital and non-digital media. PHOTOGRAPHY INDUSTRY -It is the art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

1.1.4. MEDIA AS A CULTURE OF ENTERTAINMENT -The term alludes to the overall impact and intellectual guidance exerted by the media (primarily TV, but also the press, radio and cinema), not only on public opinion but also on tastes and values.

1.2. KINDS OF MEDIA -We can start our discussion of media by defining and describing different kinds of media that children are using today. Modern media comes in many different formats, including print media (books, magazines, newspapers), television, movies, video games, music, cell phones, various kinds of software, and the Internet. Each type of media involves both content, and also a device or object through which that content is delivered.

1.2.1. NEW MEDIA -are forms of media that are computational and rely on computers for redistribution. Some examples of new media are computer animations, computer games, human-computer interfaces, interactive computer installations, websites, and virtual worlds.

1.2.2. SOCIAL MEDIA -are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation or sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

1.2.3. TRADITIONAL MEDIA -refers to mediums that are part of our culture for over half a century. These forms include television, radio, print advertisements, and billboards.

1.2.4. MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY -allows transmission of voice and multimedia data via a computer or a mobile device without having connected to any physical or fixed link. Mobile communication technologies not only benefiting businesses to perform their operation faster and efficiently but also raising the standard of human lives.

1.2.5. RELATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES -Include a variety of technologies such as educational technology, information technology, nanotechnology, biotechnology, cognitive science, psychotechnology, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Example of this are Sony Playstation or Windows Xbox.

2. Media Then and Now

2.1. BRIEF HISTORY OF MEDIA -Ever since the first human beings evolved on planet Earth, communicating with each other is one of the most essential and immediate need that they had to learn, develop, and master. This is to convey information they want to share and get the information they also need.

2.1.1. PRE-INDUSTRIAL AGE -society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. 1.Cave paintings (also known as “parietal art“) are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, dated to some 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known. 2.Clay Tablets (2400 BC) Cuneiform characters were imprinted on a wet clay tablet with a stylus often made of reed (reed pen). Once written upon, many tablets were dried in the sun or air, remaining fragile. Later, these unfired clay tablets could be soaked in water and recycled into new clean tablets. 3.Papyrus in egypt (2500 BC) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge. It can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book. 4.Acta Diurna in rome (130 BC) The first form of Acta appeared around 131 BC during the Roman Republic. Their original content included results of legal proceedings and outcomes of trials. Later the content was expanded to public notices and announcements and other noteworthy information such as prominent births, marriages and deaths. 5.Dibao in China (2nd century) They contained official announcements and news, and were intended to be seen only by bureaucrats (and a given Dibao might only be intended for a certain subset of bureaucrats). 6.Codex in the mayan region (5th century) Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark cloth. The folding books are the products of professional scribes working under the patronage of deities such as the Tonsured Maize God and the Howler Monkey Gods.

2.1.2. INDUSTRIAL AGE -Now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. Typewriters -Attempts at workable typewriting machines first appeared in the early 1800s, but enjoyed little commercial success until the Remington Arms Company (USA) marketed in 1874 a design bought from Sholes. The typewriter wrought a major change in the business environment: No longer was it necessary to write a fine copperplate hand to have a career in business: Documents could be produced more quickly and legibly by the machine. The typewriter vastly expanded the clerical labor pool. Early developments in photography -Introduced in 1839 in France by Louis J. M. Daguerre, the first photographic print process was the daguerreotype. It was made on a silver-coated copper plate which was, for all practical purposes, a mirror. The sensitizing agent was iodine, the developing agent was mercury. Once exposed in a camera and developed, the plate became a photograph on a mirror. Daguerreotypes were rarely used after 1860. Punched Cards (1900 - 1980) -Punch cards used a variety of formats and sizes developed by various manufacturers in addressing their data storage needs throughout time. European systems, represented by the smaller Powers-Samas card shown here, tended to be more compact than American cards.

2.1.3. ELECTRONIC AGE -is the electronic age the electronic age began when electronic equipment, including computers came into use.

2.1.4. DIGITAL AGE -also called the information age, is defined as the time period starting in the 1970s with the introduction of the personal computer with subsequent technology introduced providing the ability to transfer information freely and quickly.

2.2. BRIEF HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE MEDIA -It usually coincides with the colonial history of the nation, wherein it becomes a bi- product of various political movements and upheavals.

2.2.1. PRE-COLONIAL TRACES -Our ancestors also developed a system of communication and information dissemination. When there is a system of oral communication, it follows that a system of written communication also existed. Baybayin- is an ancient pre-colonial Philippine writing system. The script is well known because it was carefully documented by Catholic clergy who lived in the Philippines during the colonial era. The term Baybay literally means "to spell" in Tagalog. Baybayin was extensively documented by the Spanish.

2.2.2. THE PRINT INDUSTRY AND FILIPINO FREEDOM -Books, magazine, and newspapers were brought to the Philippines by the ancient colonizers, mostly printed in a language that not everybody in the archipelago could speak. LA SOLIDARIDAD -was the most popular of these nationalistic newspapers published in 1889. NOLI ME TANGERE & EL FILIBUSTERISMO -was written by our National Hero, Jose Rizal. This proves that the pen could also be mightier than the sword, and both could work together to topple an oppressive regime. DEL SUPERIOR GOVIERNO -the first news paper in the country, it was established in 1811. It was intended for the Spaniards only so it was written in Spanish. THE MANILA TIMES & MANILA BULLETIN -it was during American period when some of the long-running newspapers we have in the country. LIWAYWAY MAGAZINE -The most notable magazine empire in the early 1900s. DARNA, DYESEBEL & CAPTAIN BARBELL -famous comics in Filipino society and it became another viable form of affordable but well-crafted entertainment.

2.2.3. THE EUROPEAN FILM IMPORT -The import of film in the Philippines has been brought here by a Spanish soldier named Carlo Naquera. Going here, he has brought a device called a cinematographe made the Lumiere brothers. Along with it, he has also brought several Spanish movies and showed them to Filipinos during 1897. DALAGANG BUKID -the very first Filipino-produced film. It was actually a movie adaptation of a popular musical stage play created by Hermogenes Ilagan. DAWN OF FREEDOM -The most popular film in 1944 which highlighted the World War II aim of the Japanese to have an "Asia for the Asians". GOLDEN AGE OF THE PHILIPPINE CINEMA -was able to rise by the Filipino film industry because of the rubble of destruction.

2.2.4. THE BROADCAST INDUSTRY -it started in the Philippines with the introduction of the telegraph and telephone system in the country. During the colonial Spanish period of the late 1800s. AMERICANS -were primarily pivotal in bringing the broadcast industry to the Philippines. It was Henry Herman who first operated a small radio station in 1922. JAPANESE -radio was used by the colonizers for their propaganda purposes. The popular radio stations closed or operated with a limited capacity under the watchful eye of the Japanese.

2.2.5. LOCAL ONLINE MEDIA -Philippines officially connected to the world of the Internet on March 1994 through the efforts of PHNET.

2.3. THE STATE OF MEDIA TODAY -today's media is characterized by the blurring of lines and boundaries, especially with the passing of information and the revision of communication processes through the so-called information superhighway.

2.3.1. FROM GLOBALIZATION TO GLOCALIZATION -The concept of globalization has changed the way media is produced, circulated, distributed, and consumed. This means a local Filipino could expand their services and operation in the other countries, making the Filipino office their headquarters.

2.3.2. THE LOCAL LANDSCAPE -The current media landscape in the Philippines is still predominantly Manila-centric. In print, the Philippine Daily Inquirer already established regional offices called news bureaus or news desks in different regions.

2.4. MEDIA OWNERSHIP -This where the concept of media as a business entity enters the discussions.

2.4.1. MAINSTREAM MEDIA -is a term and abbreviation used to refer collectively to the various large mass news media that influence many people, and both reflect and shape prevailing currents of thought. DISNEY CORPORATION -A good example of a large distribution channel. Founded by legendary cartoonist Walt Disney in America. ABS-CBN -An example of a mainstream media in Philippines, owned by the Lopez family.

2.4.2. ALTERNATIVE AND INDEPENDENT MEDIA -In developed countries, alternative media are media that are alternatives to the business or government-owned mass media. An independent media means that no one should control and influence its coverage of news. CINEMALAYA INDEPENDENT FILM FESTIVAL -An example of this independent media venture. Where artists compete at the chance of getting funds to produce, shoot, and exhibit their own films using digital film media.

2.4.3. COMMUNITY MEDIA -are any form of media that function in service of or by a community. In other words, it is having access to or creating local alternatives to mainstream broadcasting, like local community newspapers, radio stations, or magazines. GEOGRAPHIC MEDIA -pertains to location-based media products produced for a local city, municipality, town, or region.

2.4.4. STATE-OWNED MEDIA -is media for mass communication which is "controlled financially and editorially by the state." These news outlets may be the sole media outlet or may exist in competition with corporate and non-corporate media. RADIO TELEVISION MALACANANG -an example of a state owned and run media outlet in Philippines.

3. Understanding Media: Aesthetics of the Image, Text, and Audio

3.1. FRAMING AND READING -Framing involves social construction of a social phenomenon – by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, or other actors and organizations. This is done through the media's choice of certain words and images to cover a story.

3.1.1. NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALISM -A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists who gather and publish information. Journalistic media include print, television, radio, Internet, and, in the past, newsreels. ORDER TO CREATE NEWS -always use the 5Ws and 1H to present facts (who, what, where, when, why, and how)

3.1.2. BOOKS, COMICS, MAGAZINES, AND THE PUBLISHING INDUSTRY -even with advent of the internet and social media, the printed book is still a viable way of getting information. LITERATURE NOVELS-a fictitious prose narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism. NOVELETTES-a short novel that is often about romantic relationships and is usually not very serious. ESSAYS-a short piece of writing on a particular subject. MEMOIRS-a historical account or biography written from personal knowledge or special sources.

3.1.3. PHOTOGRAPHY AND TIMELESS IMAGE CONCEPTS -Photography the art or practice of taking and processing photographs. SHADOWS AND HIGHLIGHTS -could be further determine the emotional focus sought by the photographer. LIGHTING AND FOCUS -are important to notice when looking at a photograph. COMPOSING THE SHOT -Where is the camera located? Is it near or far from the subject? -Where is camera placed? Is it higher or lower than the subject? -What is the main focus of the shot? What are the secondary elements of the shot?

3.2. FRAMING AND LISTENING -we could frame a picture in our minds while we are reading or listening.

3.2.1. WAR OF THE WORLDS -a sci-fi novel presented over the radio as a news broadcast.

3.2.2. RADIO AND EVOKING IMAGINATION -Radio is the most popular form of mass media all over the world. It is the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, especially those carrying sound messages. What radio tries to capture, since the day it was invented, is the listener's imagination. once this is captured, a person's attention is held. Even illiterate people can listen to radio, in contrast to, for example, newspapers, which require that the audience be literate to use and enjoy the content.

4. Understanding Media: Aesthetic of Film and TV

4.1. THE FILM FORM -is anything that is involved in making and producing the finished product (lighting, mise-en-scene, acting, camera movement, editing). So, that would include all of those things that are in your definition.

4.1.1. MODES OF FILM PRODUCTION -All films in the world undergo three modes of film production. FIRST MODE -Production. This is where all the planning stages of a film are made before actually making the film. SECOND MODE -Production stage. This is the actual shooting of the film sometimes called the "principal phase". THIRD MODE -Postproduction stage. This is where everything will put together: the images shot will be edited together; the music will be composed and laid out with edited images, and the special effects or other graphics requirements will be put in the film.

4.1.2. FILM FORMATS -When it comes to the visual treatment and style, a film could be differentiating into four typical formats. NARRATIVE -fictional film or fiction film is a film that tells a fictional or fictionalized story, event or narrative. In this style of film, believable narratives and characters help convince the audience that the unfolding fiction is real. DOCUMENTARY -is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical. ANIMATION -is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. EXPERIMENTAL -is a mode of filmmaking that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms and alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working.

4.1.3. FILM IMAGE COMPOSITION -Film communicates its images by using similar clues and signposts like language. VISUAL SYMBOLISMS AND CUES -Are the most effective way of delivering the message to the audience. ELEMENTS -The relationship of objects and people -The play of light and dark -The colors and their patterns -The position of the camera and the angles used to frame

4.1.4. MOTION FRAMING CONCEPTS -The process of framing is intended to eliminate what is unessential in the motion picture, to direct the spectator's attention to what is important, and to give it special meaning and force. CAMERA MOVEMENTS INCLUDE: -ZOOM. a camera shot that changes smoothly from a long shot to a close-up or vice versa. -PAN. to photograph or televise while rotating a camera on its vertical or horizontal axis in order to keep a moving person or object in view or allow the film to record a panorama. -DOLLY. is a wheeled cart or similar device used in filmmaking and television production to create smooth horizontal camera movements. -FOCUS. has a sharp and well-defined image. -TILT. is a cinematographic technique in which the camera stays in a fixed position but rotates up/down in a vertical plane. -PEDESTAL. moving the camera vertically with respect to the subject. -TRUCK. is basically the same as tracking or dollying.

4.2. THE TV BROADCAST - is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model.

4.2.1. PHILIPPINES REGULAR COMMERCIAL CHANNELS - ABS-CBN (2) - TV5 (5) - GMA (7) - RPN (9) - GMA News TV (11) - IBC (13) - PTV (4)

4.2.2. KINDS OF TV SHOWS -Due to the overwhelming need for content in a given TV station, the variety of programming has expanded since the time TV has invented. INFORMATIVE PROGRAMMING -To fulfill its role of delivering information, news programs were created to deliver current events relevant to the viewing public. A news program runs for 30 mins to one hour. ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAMMING -Slice broadcasts lifestyle and entertainment programming aimed at women in the form of reality television series, documentaries, talk shows, and more.

4.2.3. TV SHOW ANATOMY AND ADVERTISING -In any kind of programming format, a key element of how a TV show is designed centers on the way the show,s content could be subdivided into segments. COMMERCIAL BREAK -The sponsors are usually commercial brands selling products, goods, or services.

4.2.4. CRAFTING MEDIA MESSAGES -this means different types of content are being crafted and presented.

4.2.5. CREATING MEANING IN AUDIO PRODUCTION -Sometimes the original, or production audio, lacks in performance or quality, and the actor or actors are brought into a sound studio to record some or all of their dialogue from the project.

4.2.6. CREATING MEANING IN IMAGE PRODUCTION -This will determine what was included and excluded in a shot.

4.2.7. CREATING MEANING IN AUDIOVISUAL PRODUCTION -It is important to make us see the believability of the TV show we are watching.

5. Understanding Media: Aesthetics of New Media

5.1. DECONSTRUCTING NEW MEDIA -New media technologies usually encompasses two forms: the web-based applications or those you access by going online with laptops or desktop computers, and the mobile applications which pertains to accessing online information via a mobile device.

5.1.1. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY: CONVERGENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS -To dismiss new media as better than traditional media is a fallacy.

5.1.2. NEW MEDIA AS MULTIMEDIA -The term “multimedia” is used to describe works of art that incorporate a variety of media (materials), including technological media that appeal to multiple senses, not just to sight. New media works use new technologies like video, computers, and/or virtual reality.

5.1.3. NEW MEDIA TRANSITIONS: FROM SYNERGY TO TRANSMEDIA -By fitting similar content to various types of media, synergy creates a trans-media or multi-media experience which may reach a broader range of fans or further entrench existing fans with a more immersive storyworld.

5.2. INTERSECTING TRADITIONAL MEDIA AND NEW MEDIA -Traditional media allows businesses to target a broad target audience through billboards, print advertising, television commercials, and more. In comparison, new media allows companies to target a narrow target audience through social media, paid online ads, and search results.

5.2.1. JOURNALISM + INTERNET = BLOGGING -is an online journal or informational website displaying information in the reverse chronological order, with the latest posts appearing first. It is a platform where a writer or even a group of writers share their views on an individual subject.

5.2.2. BROADCASTING + INTERNET = PODCAST -a digital audio file made available on the Internet for downloading to a computer or mobile device, typically available as a series, new installments of which can be received by subscribers automatically.

5.2.3. FILM + INTERNET = YOUTUBE - is a video sharing service where users can watch, like, share, comment and upload their own videos. The video service can be accessed on PCs, laptops, tablets and via mobile phones.

5.3. TRANSITIONING MEDIA, TRANSITIONING USERS -Media theorists have identified two types of audiences living in the digital age: the digital native and the digital immigrant.

6. Understanding Media: Aesthetic of Social Networking

6.1. DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL MEDIA -Social media makes it easier for us to connect with family and friends these days, especially those who live far from us. -A positive thing most of the time, social media helps enhance this propensity of ours to collect.

6.1.1. WHAT IS SOCIAL NETWORKING? -is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationship with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. The social network is distributed across various computer networks. EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES: -Facebook -MySpace -Twitter -LinkedIn

6.1.2. KINDS OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS VARYING ISSUES -The basic characteristics of a social networking platform entails a user to sign up to their service. Most of these sites offer free services so anyone could create an account. PRINT-BASED -Broadly, any written or pictorial form of communication produced mechanically or electronically using printing, photocopying, or digital methods from which multiple copies can be made through automated processes. AUDIO-BASED -using both sight and sound, typically in the form of slides or video and recorded speech or music. PHOTO-BASED -It's a social platform that allows its users to post photographs and short videos of themselves. VIDEO-BASED - We begin with fundamental photographic techniques; the building blocks of our craft. The art-design of your story will inform the style. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES -is an online platform that allows users to create a public profile and interact with other users on the website. Social networking sites usually have a new user input a list of people with whom they share a connection and then allow the people on the list to confirm or deny the connection.

6.2. RELEVANCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN TODAY'S SOCIETY -In today's society, the use of social media has become a necessary daily activity. Social media is typically used for social interaction and access to news and information, and decision making. It is a valuable communication tool with others locally and worldwide, as well as to share, create, and spread information.

6.2.1. PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS -Personal Communications include private letters, memos, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, and similar resources. As the personal communication may not provide recoverable data, the personal communication may be cited in-text only.

6.2.2. BUSINESS AND CUSTOMER CARE TOOLS -Online communities, live chat, customer portals and mobile apps: We're in the era of the empowered consumer, and businesses are taking note.

6.2.3. SOCIAL SERVICES AND GOVERNANCE -Social care governance is the process by which organisations ensure good service delivery and promote good outcomes for people who use services.

6.2.4. EDUCATIONAL TOOLS -Edmodo is an educational tool that connects teachers and students, and is assimilated into a social network. In this one, teachers can create online collaborative groups, administer and provide educational materials, measure student performance, and communicate with parents, among other functions.

6.2.5. ADVOCACY CAMPAIGNS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE -Advocacy and social change. Advocacy and social change are at the heart of what we do, whether working to achieve gender equality and social inclusion or to ensure universal health care.

6.3. TRADITIONAL MEDIA COVERAGE AND SOCIAL MEDIA ENHANCEMENT -Use Social Media to Gain Traditional Media Coverage It's changed from a means of staying connected to old friends to the way many people are consuming news and staying up-to-date. It's important to know who your target journalists are and what social media platforms they are using.

6.3.1. ENTERTAINMENT PORTALS -Philippine Entertainment Portal, or, serves as the digital counterpart of YES! magazine, published by Summit Media, which features local showbiz/entertainment related news, scoops, and stories.