MEDIA AND INFORMATION LITERACY

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MEDIA AND INFORMATION LITERACY by Mind Map: MEDIA AND INFORMATION LITERACY

1. LESSON 1: WHAT IS MEDIA?

1.1. IN THIS LESSON, YOU WILL DISCOVER THE FOLLOWING.

1.1.1. HOW THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS WORKS FOR MEDIA.

1.1.2. THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF MEDIA

1.1.3. THE INDUSTRIES THAT OPERATE THE MEDIA MEDIA

1.1.4. THE DIFFERENT BETWEEN TRADITIONAL MEDIA AND NEW MEDIA

1.2. COMMUNICATION PROCESS?

1.2.1. The Communication is a two-way process wherein the message in the form of ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions is transmitted between two or more persons with the intent of creating a shared understanding.Simply, an act of conveying intended information and understanding from one person to another is called as communication. The term communication is derived from the Latin word “Communis” which means to share. Effective communication is when the message conveyed by the sender is understood by the receiver in exactly the same way as it was intended.

1.2.2. The communication is a dynamic process that begins with the conceptualizing of ideas by the sender who then transmits the message through a channel to the receiver, who in turn gives the feedback in the form of some message or signal within the given time frame. Thus, there are Seven major elements of communication process:.

1.3. THE FEEDBACK MECHANICS

1.3.1. A feedback mechanism is a process that uses the conditions of one component to regulate the function of the other. It is done to either increase or dampen the change in the system. When the process tends to increase the change in the system, the mechanism is known as positive feedback. Negative feedback is when the process seeks to counter the change and maintain equilibrium. Feedback is part of a cause-and-effect loop where information about a system is returned to the controller of the system to improve its performance. An example of feedback and a feedback mechanism is the body's ability to control temperature. The condition of the body's temperature is the information fed back to the brain, which is the controller. If the temperature is high, the body sweats in order to cool down. Since the process of sweating is done to stop the temperature change, this is a negative feedback mechanism. Another example is in psychology in a phenomenon known as "shame loops" that people who easily blush experience. When they realize that they are blushing, they become embarrassed about it, which then causes them to blush even more, creating a positive feedback mechanism. The positive and negative naming of the mechanisms do not indicate whether the feedback is good or bad.

1.4. MEDIA AS AN INFORMATION INDUSTRY

1.4.1. In case of consumers, media including music and motion picture, personal computers, video game-related industries, are among the information industries. In case of businesses, information industries include computer programming, system design, so-called FIRE (finance, insurance, and real estate) industries, telecommunications, and others.

1.4.2. 12 TYPES OF MEDIA INDUSTRY

1.4.2.1. PUBLISHING

1.4.2.2. VIDEO GAMES

1.4.2.3. VIDEO AND ANIMATION

1.4.2.4. AUDIO

1.4.2.5. STREAMING MEDIA

1.4.2.6. FILM

1.4.2.7. MUSIC

1.4.2.8. SOCIAL MEDIA

1.4.2.9. INTERACTIVE MEDIA

1.4.2.10. GRAPHICS

1.4.2.11. 11.THEATER AND ART

1.4.2.12. 12.EVENTS

1.5. MEDIA AS A CULTURE OF ENTERTAINMENT

1.5.1. Entertainment media and culture have a huge influence on American culture and values. It is the central news and entertainment and educational information for all generations. It has grown rapidly with an advance in technology. First there was the radio where families sat down together and company came over for fellowship.

1.6. KINDS OF MEDIA

1.6.1. Types of Media / Media Classification Media can be classified into four types: Print Media (Newspapers, Magazines) Broadcast Media (TV, Radio) Outdoor or Out of Home (OOH) Media; Internet . Print Media (i) Newspaper. Newspaper is a major source of information for a large number of readers. It may be National or local, daily or weekly newspaper.

1.7. TRADITIONAL MEDIA

1.7.1. Traditional media refers to forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a targeted group of the public. Traditional forms of media include print publications (newspapers and magazines), broadcast news (television and radio) and, in recent years, the digital version of those media outlets,... Reference:

1.7.2. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL MEDIA AND NEW MEDIA

1.7.2.1. modern media is social media, traditional media are those TV stations, radios and news papers. The difference between both aside from the generation from where it stands is the audience reach. A larger percentage of people are on social media platforms thus making this more favorable for those who are advertising their online business.

1.8. SOCIAL MEDIA

1.8.1. Social Media Is Supposed To Connect People. According to the report: “…many companies continue to treat social media as a one-way communication vehicle and are largely focused on how they can use these sites to push their marketing agendas.

1.9. NEW MEDIA

1.9.1. New media is a catch-all term for all forms of electronic communication that have appeared or will appear since the original mainly text-and-static picture forms of online communication. New media usually includes any and all of these:

1.10. MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

1.10.1. Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication. Mobile code division multiple access ( CDMA ) technology has evolved rapidly over the past few years.

1.10.2. TYPES OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION

1.10.2.1. 1.Paracrine: The signaling cell secretes a chemical that diffuses locally to target cells. 2.Autocrine: Similar to paracrine signaling, but the target cell is the signaling cell... 3.Endocrine: Endocrine signaling produces a hormone that travels throughout the organism via the circulatory system. 4.Synaptic: The sending and receiving cells have built a synaptic structure bringing their cell membranes in close contact for easy exchange of signals.

1.11. RELATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES.

1.11.1. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage; converging technologies represent previously distinct fields which are in some way moving towards stronger inter-connection and similar goals. However, the opinion on the degree of the impact, status and economic viability of several emerging and converging technologies varies.

2. LESSON 2: MEDIA THEN AND NOW

2.1. IN THIS LESSON, YOU WILL LEARN HOW TO DO THE FOLLOWING

2.1.1. HOW MEDIA EVOLVED IN THE WORLD

2.1.2. HOW MEDIA DEVELOPED IN THE PHILIPPINES

2.1.3. WHO OWNS THE MEDIA

2.2. BRIEF HISTORY OF MEDIA

2.2.1. To understand where we are in the progression of media in America, we must know from whence we came. From pamphleteering and newspapers to radio and television, and now to the diverse online environment, we must trace the development of media over time. The chapter begins with how the media emerged in this country, to the partisan press, and its decline. Next the chapter shifts to media development in 20th and 21st centuries—independent press, radio, television, and finally the Internet.

2.3. PRE - INDUSTRIAL AGE

2.3.1. Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. Pre-industrial is a time before there were machines and tools to help perform tasks en masse. Pre-industrial civilization dates back to centuries ago, but the main era known as the Pre-industrial society occurred right before the industrial society. Pre-Industrial societies vary from region to region depending on the culture of a given area or history of social and political life. The Indian subcontinent was known for its spread of Islam by the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, which later caused the emergence of the proto-industrialization, while Europe for its feudal system and the Italian Renaissance.

2.4. INDUSTRIAL AGES

2.4.1. The Industrial Age is a period of history that encompasses the changes in economic and social organization that began around 1760 in Great Britain and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines such as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments. While it is commonly believed that the Industrial Age was supplanted by the Information Age in the late 20th century, a view that has become common since the Revolutions of 1989, much of the Third World economy is still based on manufacturing. It is thus debatable whether civilisation has left the Industrial Age already or is still in it and in the process of reaching the Information Age

2.5. ELECTRONIC AGE

2.5.1. Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical audience to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which today are most often created electronically, but do not require electronics to be accessed by the end user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD - ROM and online content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analogue electronics data or digital electronic data format. Although the term is usually associated with content recorded on a storage medium, recordings are not required for live broadcasting and online networking.

2.6. DIGITAL AGE

2.6.1. The digital age, also called the information age, is defined as the time period starting in the 1970s with the introduction of the personal computer with subsequent technology introduced providing the ability to transfer information freely and quickly.

2.7. PRE COLONIAL TRACES

2.8. BRIEF HISTORY OF PHILIPPINES MEDIA

2.8.1. The Philippine media landscape is product of and subject to a stormy history that is characterized by recurring patterns: attempts of intimidation - let it be during Spanish or American colonialization, Japanese occupation or by Marcos’ martial law - and the media’s resilience, reflected in relentless, anti-establishment and often clandestine reporting. Another theme is the rise and fall of different eras of media oligarchs, that gained, lost, and partially re-gained their economic-political power before, during, and after Marcos’ time.

2.9. THE PRINT INDUSTRY AND THE FILIPINO FREEDOM

2.9.1. Periodicals are the most accessible and affordable sources of daily information because of their availability. For more than a century, print media in the Philippines has been instrumental not only in promoting the government but also in voicing out the grievances of a populace in dilemma. According to the late journalist Amando J. Malay, “In struggles for freedom, armed or otherwise, newspapers always play a major role in rallying the people to the cause and making known the principles for which the struggle is being waged.

2.10. THE EUROPEAN FILM IMPORM

2.10.1. The import of film in the Philippines has been brought here by a Spanish soldier named Carlo Naquera. Going here, he has brought a device called a cinematographe made the Lumiere brothers. Along with it, he has also brought several Spanish movies and showed them to Filipinos during 1897. When all the movies have been shown, he decided to film Filipinos in their everyday life. Filipinos watching these film were then impressed and loved this new form of media. After the Spanish have left the country and the Americans replaced them, they then showed American movies around places like Escolta and Intramuros during the early 90s. Throughout time, Filipinos have learned using and making films such as those showed to them by previous colonizers, making the very first Filipino-produced film called, "Dalagang Bukid" made by Jose Nepomuceno. The movie was a movie adaptation of a stage play made by Hermogenes Ilagan. Because of this, Jose Nepomuceno has ever since been given the title "Father of Philippine Cinema." As time passed, Filipinos have used film in other ways, such as a way of protest during the Marcos period, and film is still being enjoyed by citizens today, along with locally-organized film festivals and competitions.

2.11. THE BROADCAST INDUSTRY

2.11.1. The term ‘infotainment’ emerged in the broadcasting industry and is a portmanteau word made from ‘information’ and ‘entertainment’. It is used to denote material that is intended to both inform and entertain in an effort to enhance popularity with audiences (Stockwell, 2004). Several audience studies indicate that infotainment media channels and programmes are more popular with audiences and attract a higher number of adverts than ordinary news channels (Graber, 1994; Brants, 1998; Anderson, 2004). The term was seemingly first used in librarianship in September 1980 at the inaugural joint conference of the Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux (ASLIB), the Institute of Information Scientists and the Library Association in Sheffield, United Kingdom, by a group of British information scientists – calling themselves infotainers – who presented a comedy show at the professional conference, ostensibly to provide fun and levity (Tara, 2008).

2.12. LOCAL ONLINE MEDIA

2.12.1. Consumers trust advertising on local newspaper, magazine and television websites, and are very likely to take action after viewing ads on these sites, according to the “Local Online Media: From Advertising to Action ” study by the Online Publishers Association The new OPA report looks at consumers who get local information from online city guides, classifieds, magazines, newspapers, portals, television sites, user review sites, or yellow pages. Consumers on all three types of local media sites – newspapers, television stations and magazines – are more likely to take action after viewing a local ad than visitors on all other local content sites.

3. LESSON 3: UNDERSTANDING MEDIA: AESTHATICS OF THE IMAGE, TEXT, AND AUDIO

3.1. FRAMING AND LISTENING

3.1.1. Framing means to construct, compuse or imagine something, meaning to create with solid plan to follow using a specific structure in mind.

3.2. AESTHESTEC

3.2.1. aesthetic is the measure or appreciationof beauty. In photography, it usually means that an image is appealing to the eye. Something about its subject, composition, colour (or lack thereof). It makes you want to sit and observe it for much longer than you would an average picture

3.3. PHOTOGRAPHY

3.3.1. A photograph (also known as a photo) is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see. The process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek (phos), meaning "light," and (graphê), meaning "drawing, writing," together meaning "drawing with light

4. LESSON 4: Aesthetic of film and TV

4.1. FILM FORM

4.1.1. The film form is an internal system in the movie that manages to put the pieces of the scenes of the movie into unified formal shape. It has a relation with the viewer of that art, the spectator of the movie or the music concert, the listener of the music and the reader of the book.

4.2. MODES OF FILM PRODUCTION

4.2.1. Small-scale Production: It is also possible for one person to do everything: plan the film, finance it, perform in it, run the camera, record the sound, and put it all together. Such films are rare seen in commercial theatres, but they are common to experimental and documentary traditions. Exploitation and Independent Production: There are low-budget exploitation products tailored to a particular market, like in earlier decades, fringe theatres and drive-ins; now, video rentals and sales. Exploitation filmmakers usually divide the labor along studio lines. Large-Scale Production: A studio is a company in the business of manufacturing films. The most famous studios flourished in Hollywood from the 1920s to the 1960s—Paramount, Warner Bros., Columbia, and so on. These companies owned equipment and extensive physical studios, and they retained most of their workers on long-term contracts.

4.3. FILM FORMATS

4.3.1. A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or film making. It can also apply to projected film, either slides or movies. The primary characteristic of a film format is its size and shape.

4.3.1.1. NARRATIVE, DOCUMENTARY, ANIMATION, EXPIREMENTAL

4.4. Although structural integrity, cost, the nature of building materials, and the functional utility of the building contribute heavily to the design process, architects can still apply aesthetic considerations to buildings and related architectural structures. Common aesthetic design principles include ornamentation, edge delineation, texture, flow, solemnity, symmetry, color, granularity, the interaction of sunlight and shadows, transcendence, and harmony. These aesthetic considerations form one branch of the philosophy of architecture. Interior designers, being less constrained by structural concerns, have a wider variety of applications to appeal to aesthetics. They may employ color, color harmony, wallpaper, ornamentation, furnishings, fabrics, textures, lighting, various floor treatments, as well as adhere to aesthetic concepts such as feng shui.

5. LESSON 5:UNDERSTANDING MEDIA: AESRHETICS OF NEW MEDIA

5.1. Understanding the Impact of the New Aesthetics and New Media Works on Future Curatorial Resource Responsibilities for Research Collections

5.1.1. The author examines the emerging impact of the works of the “New Aesthetic,” along with other works that have their genesis in the rapid technological changes of the last fifty-plus years. Consideration is given to the history of digital audio/visual works that will eventually be held by repositories of cultural heritage and how this history has, or has not, been documented. These creations have developed out of an environment of networked, shared, re-usable and re-purposed data. The article briefly examines how these works are utilized while looking at the future impact of the growing creation and use of complex, compound multimedia digital research and cultural collections as evidenced by augmented and virtual reality environments such as smartphone apps and Second Life.

5.2. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY

5.2.1. New media technology is any type of technology transfers information through digital techniques, computerized systems or data networks. Information exchange has become easier since the advent of the computer age. Headsets are a new media technology used for communication over the Internet.

5.3. NEW MEDIA AS A MULTIMEDIA

5.3.1. New media encompasses multimedia, a term originally used mainly for standalone (not online) presentations in various scales as well as hypermedia , which emphasizes interactivity and specifically means the ability to selectively link from one form of content to another. This was last updated in April 2005 Continue Reading About new media

5.4. INTERSECTING TRADITIONAL MEDIA AND NEW MEDIA

5.4.1. TRADITIONAL MEDIA Traditional media refers to mediums that are part of our culture for over half a century. These forms include television, radio, print advertisements, and billboards. The most expensive form of marketing – television ads – have the power to reach broad and targeted audiences, depending on the reach of the channels selected. Radio is another medium that can broadly target audiences. Print advertisements such as those in newspapers and magazines, and billboard ads continue to be used to attract large groups of people at once. DIGITAL MEDIA Digital media refers to audio, video, and image content that has been encoded. Encoding content involves converting audio and video input into digital media formats. Typically, this includes social networking sites, website advertisements, blogs, vlogs, and podcasts. While blogs, vlogs and podcasts are relatively new to the field of media, social networking sites and internet ads have been dominating for several years.

6. LESSON 6: UNDERSTANDING MEDIA: AESTHETIC OF SOCIAL MEDIA

6.1. In reference to social media, the term “aesthetic” is usually used to refer to the overall visual theme and mood of an account. Most often associated with Instagram, an aesthetic can exist on any digital platform with a visual component.

6.2. KINDS OF SOCIAL MEDIA

6.2.1. 1. Social Networks Examples: Facebook, LinkedIn A social networking site is a social media site that allows you to connect with people who have similar interests and backgrounds. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are three of the most popular examples of a social network website. These platforms allow us to connect with our friends, family, and even brands. Most social network sites let users share thoughts, upload photos and videos, and participate in groups of interest.

6.3. PRINT- BASED

6.3.1. STRUCTURE: In almost every case, the print-based and online courses use the same best selling and quality text, no matter what the format. The print-based courses have Study Guide Questions, Article Requirements and Application Requirements. The online courses have Written Responses, Activities, and Applications.