All About Wounds and Their Treatment

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All About Wounds and Their Treatment by Mind Map: All About Wounds and Their Treatment

1. Antibiotics

1.1. Classes and mechanisms

1.1.1. Relevant ones for this week

1.1.1.1. Beta lactams

1.1.1.1.1. Work by

1.1.1.2. Sulfonamides

1.1.1.2.1. Work by

1.1.1.3. Fluroquinolones

1.1.1.3.1. Work by

1.1.1.4. Polymyxins

1.1.1.4.1. Work by

1.1.1.5. Aminoglycosides

1.1.1.5.1. Work by

1.1.2. And others..

1.1.2.1. Like

1.1.2.1.1. Oxazilidinones

1.1.2.1.2. Ansamycins

1.1.2.1.3. Etc.

1.2. Sensitivity test

1.2.1. Can be divided into

1.2.1.1. Disc diffusion method

1.2.1.1.1. Which utilizes the idea of..

1.2.1.2. E-testing method

1.2.1.2.1. Which can

2. Collecting samples from wounded areas

2.1. Use a

2.1.1. Rayon swab

2.1.2. Calcium alginate

2.2. Swab in

2.2.1. Zigzag motion

2.3. Pressurize to

2.3.1. Expel fluid

3. Procedures followed after burns

3.1. Depends on whether it’s a..

3.1.1. Major burn

3.1.1.1. Which is approached by these guidelines

3.1.1.1.1. Protect the patient from further harm

3.1.1.1.2. Make sure he’s breathing

3.1.1.1.3. Cover the burned area

3.1.1.1.4. Don’t immerse severe burns under water

3.1.1.1.5. Watch for sign of shock

3.1.1.2. The characteristics of which are

3.1.1.2.1. Deep

3.1.1.2.2. May be charred

3.1.1.2.3. Dry

3.1.1.2.4. Larger than 3 inches (8cm) in diameter

3.1.2. Minor burn

3.1.2.1. The characteristics of which are

3.1.2.1.1. Causing mild pain

3.1.2.1.2. Reddish like sunburn

3.1.2.2. Which is approached by these guidelines

3.1.2.2.1. Cool the burn

3.1.2.2.2. Remove tight items from the burned area

3.1.2.2.3. Apply lotion

3.1.2.2.4. Bandage the burn

4. Remedies to stay away from

4.1. Include

4.1.1. Oil

4.1.1.1. Because

4.1.1.1.1. It retains more heat

4.1.2. Toothpaste

4.1.2.1. Because

4.1.2.1.1. It’s not sterile

4.1.3. Egg whites

4.1.3.1. Because

4.1.3.1.1. It’s a favorable environment for microbes

4.1.4. Ice

4.1.4.1. Because

4.1.4.1.1. It can irritate the burn

4.1.5. Butter

4.1.5.1. Because

4.1.5.1.1. It can retain more heat

5. First principles of management

5.1. Examples of which are..

5.1.1. Removing necrotic tissue

5.1.2. Drinking fluids for dehydration

5.1.3. Taking anxiety medications

6. Healing process

6.1. Which is when

6.1.1. Cells regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and replace it with new living tissue

6.2. Which if represented over a period of two weeks shows..

6.2.1. Within 24 hrs

6.2.1.1. Events include

6.2.1.1.1. Migration of neutrophils

6.2.1.1.2. Increased mitotic activity of basal cells

6.2.1.1.3. Hemostasis

6.2.2. 24-48 hrs

6.2.2.1. Events include

6.2.2.1.1. Epithelial cells proliferate

6.2.3. Day 3

6.2.3.1. Events include

6.2.3.1.1. Macrophages migrate

6.2.3.1.2. Epithelial cell continue to proliferate

6.2.4. Day 5

6.2.4.1. Events include

6.2.4.1.1. Neovascularization

6.2.4.1.2. Collagen bridge the incision

6.2.4.1.3. Epidermis recovers

6.2.5. Week 2

6.2.5.1. Events include

6.2.5.1.1. Collagen accumulation

6.2.5.1.2. Diminishing of leukocyte infiltration and edema

6.3. may result in

6.3.1. Complications

6.3.1.1. Such as

6.3.1.1.1. Infection

6.3.1.1.2. Inadequate scar formation

6.3.1.1.3. Excessive scar formation

6.3.1.1.4. Contracture scarring

7. Integumentary System

7.1. consists of

7.1.1. Skin

7.1.1.1. composed of

7.1.1.1.1. Epidermis

7.1.1.1.2. Dermis

7.1.1.2. Contains

7.1.1.2.1. Microbiota

7.1.2. Appandages

7.1.2.1. are

7.1.2.1.1. Cutanous glands

7.1.2.1.2. Hair and hair follicle

7.1.2.1.3. Nails

8. Burns

8.1. defined as

8.1.1. tissue damage and cell death

8.2. Caused by

8.2.1. heat

8.2.2. electricity

8.2.3. UV

8.2.4. chemicals

8.3. main problems are

8.3.1. Dehydration

8.3.1.1. estimated by

8.3.1.1.1. Rule of nines

8.3.2. Infection

8.4. classified into

8.4.1. 1st degree burns

8.4.1.1. involve

8.4.1.1.1. epidermis only

8.4.1.2. is

8.4.1.2.1. healed in 2-3 days

8.4.2. 2nd degree burns

8.4.2.1. involve

8.4.2.1.1. epidermis + part of the dermis

8.4.2.2. can be

8.4.2.2.1. regenerated

8.4.3. 3rd degree burns

8.4.3.1. involve

8.4.3.1.1. full thickness of skin

8.4.3.2. cannot be

8.4.3.2.1. regenerated

8.5. Taking care of the burn

8.5.1. involves

8.5.1.1. no exposure to sun

8.5.1.2. no vigorous scratching

8.5.1.3. no sharp objects or tight clothing

8.5.1.4. washing burn gently

8.5.1.5. checking for changes

8.5.1.6. using sterile equipments

9. Psychological effects of injury

9.1. treated with

9.1.1. Rehabilitation

9.1.1.1. involves

9.1.1.1.1. Emotional aspect

9.1.1.1.2. Behavioral aspect

10. Infection

10.1. What it is

10.1.1. When the body is invaded by foreign pathogens

10.1.1.1. Such as

10.1.1.1.1. bacteria

10.1.1.1.2. viruses

10.1.1.1.3. fungi

10.1.1.1.4. prions.

10.2. Its symptoms..

10.2.1. depend on the organism responsible as well as the site of the infection

10.2.1.1. For example

10.2.1.1.1. bacterial infection

10.3. Its diagnosis

10.3.1. Is done in two main ways

10.3.1.1. Where..

10.3.1.1.1. Sample from invaded area is taken

10.3.1.2. Where..

10.3.1.2.1. Microorganism are cultured

10.4. Its risk factors

10.4.1. Include

10.4.1.1. HIV or AIDS

10.4.1.2. Cancer

10.4.1.3. Taking immunosuppressants

11. Penicillins

11.1. were

11.1.1. the first antibiotic that doctors used

11.1.1.1. they are

11.1.1.1.1. a group of antibacterial drugs that attack a wide range of bacteria.

11.2. There are several antibiotics in the penicillin class

11.2.1. such as

11.2.1.1. Amoxicillin

11.2.1.2. Penicillin G

11.2.1.3. Ampicillin

11.2.1.4. Piperacillin

11.3. Therapeutic uses

11.3.1. for example

11.3.1.1. Anthrax

11.3.1.2. Lower and upper respiratory tract infections

11.3.1.3. Endocarditis

11.3.1.4. Meningitis

11.4. Risk factors

11.4.1. for taking penicillin

11.4.1.1. Pregnancy or breast feeding

11.4.1.2. Kidney disease

11.4.1.3. GI infections

11.4.1.4. Drug to drug interaction

11.5. Side effects

11.5.1. common

11.5.1.1. diarrhea

11.5.1.2. headache

11.5.1.3. nausea

11.5.1.4. skin rashes

11.5.2. less common

11.5.2.1. shortness of the breath

11.5.2.2. joint pain

11.5.2.3. abdominal cramps

11.5.2.4. sore mouth / tongue

12. Necrosis

12.1. Is

12.1.1. irreversible cell death

12.1.1.1. caused by

12.1.1.1.1. Hypoxia

12.1.1.1.2. Ischemia

12.1.1.1.3. biological agents

12.1.1.1.4. chemical agents

12.1.1.1.5. physical agents

12.1.1.1.6. immunological reactions

12.1.1.2. Leading to

12.1.1.2.1. cell membrane rupture

12.1.1.2.2. ER break down

12.1.1.2.3. ribosomes shed off

12.1.1.3. Leading to changes in the mitochondrial like

12.1.1.3.1. loss of cristae

12.1.1.3.2. loss of intramitochondrial granules

12.1.1.3.3. swelling

12.1.1.4. Leading to changes inside nucleus lit

12.1.1.4.1. That include

12.1.1.5. Leading to changes inside cytoplasm

12.1.1.5.1. Like

12.1.1.6. types of necrosis

12.1.1.6.1. are..

13. How to avoid burns

13.1. simply by being

13.1.1. careful around fire sources

13.1.2. careful with dealing hot substances

13.1.3. careful with electricity

13.1.4. careful with chemicals

14. Symptoms of inflammation

14.1. Include

14.1.1. Pain

14.1.2. Redness

14.1.3. Immobility

14.1.4. Swelling

14.1.5. Heat

15. Antibiotic Resistance

15.1. Can be

15.1.1. Innate

15.1.2. Acquired

15.2. Its mechanisms are

15.2.1. Producing enzyme to inactivate drug

15.2.2. Reducing drug uptake by bacteria

15.2.3. Developing an altered metabolic pathway

15.2.4. Altering drug binding sites

16. Principles of antibiotic therapy

16.1. Include

16.1.1. Selective toxicity

16.2. Which itself is classified into

16.2.1. Bactericidal

16.2.2. Bacteriostatic

17. Types of immunity

17.1. Include

17.1.1. Innate

17.1.1.1. Which involve

17.1.1.1.1. Mechanical barriers

17.1.1.1.2. Humoral mechanisms

17.1.1.1.3. Cellular components

17.1.2. Adaptive

17.1.2.1. Can be classified into

17.1.2.1.1. Cell mediated response

17.1.2.1.2. Humoral immune response