All About Wounds and Their Treatment

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All About Wounds and Their Treatment by Mind Map: All About Wounds and Their Treatment

1. Antibiotics

1.1. Classes and mechanisms

1.1.1. Relevant ones for this week Beta lactams Work by Sulfonamides Work by Fluroquinolones Work by Polymyxins Work by Aminoglycosides Work by

1.1.2. And others.. Like Oxazilidinones Ansamycins Etc.

1.2. Sensitivity test

1.2.1. Can be divided into Disc diffusion method Which utilizes the idea of.. E-testing method Which can

2. Collecting samples from wounded areas

2.1. Use a

2.1.1. Rayon swab

2.1.2. Calcium alginate

2.2. Swab in

2.2.1. Zigzag motion

2.3. Pressurize to

2.3.1. Expel fluid

3. Procedures followed after burns

3.1. Depends on whether it’s a..

3.1.1. Major burn Which is approached by these guidelines Protect the patient from further harm Make sure he’s breathing Cover the burned area Don’t immerse severe burns under water Watch for sign of shock The characteristics of which are Deep May be charred Dry Larger than 3 inches (8cm) in diameter

3.1.2. Minor burn The characteristics of which are Causing mild pain Reddish like sunburn Which is approached by these guidelines Cool the burn Remove tight items from the burned area Apply lotion Bandage the burn

4. Remedies to stay away from

4.1. Include

4.1.1. Oil Because It retains more heat

4.1.2. Toothpaste Because It’s not sterile

4.1.3. Egg whites Because It’s a favorable environment for microbes

4.1.4. Ice Because It can irritate the burn

4.1.5. Butter Because It can retain more heat

5. First principles of management

5.1. Examples of which are..

5.1.1. Removing necrotic tissue

5.1.2. Drinking fluids for dehydration

5.1.3. Taking anxiety medications

6. Healing process

6.1. Which is when

6.1.1. Cells regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and replace it with new living tissue

6.2. Which if represented over a period of two weeks shows..

6.2.1. Within 24 hrs Events include Migration of neutrophils Increased mitotic activity of basal cells Hemostasis

6.2.2. 24-48 hrs Events include Epithelial cells proliferate

6.2.3. Day 3 Events include Macrophages migrate Epithelial cell continue to proliferate

6.2.4. Day 5 Events include Neovascularization Collagen bridge the incision Epidermis recovers

6.2.5. Week 2 Events include Collagen accumulation Diminishing of leukocyte infiltration and edema

6.3. may result in

6.3.1. Complications Such as Infection Inadequate scar formation Excessive scar formation Contracture scarring

7. Integumentary System

7.1. consists of

7.1.1. Skin composed of Epidermis Dermis Contains Microbiota

7.1.2. Appandages are Cutanous glands Hair and hair follicle Nails

8. Burns

8.1. defined as

8.1.1. tissue damage and cell death

8.2. Caused by

8.2.1. heat

8.2.2. electricity

8.2.3. UV

8.2.4. chemicals

8.3. main problems are

8.3.1. Dehydration estimated by Rule of nines

8.3.2. Infection

8.4. classified into

8.4.1. 1st degree burns involve epidermis only is healed in 2-3 days

8.4.2. 2nd degree burns involve epidermis + part of the dermis can be regenerated

8.4.3. 3rd degree burns involve full thickness of skin cannot be regenerated

8.5. Taking care of the burn

8.5.1. involves no exposure to sun no vigorous scratching no sharp objects or tight clothing washing burn gently checking for changes using sterile equipments

9. Psychological effects of injury

9.1. treated with

9.1.1. Rehabilitation involves Emotional aspect Behavioral aspect

10. Infection

10.1. What it is

10.1.1. When the body is invaded by foreign pathogens Such as bacteria viruses fungi prions.

10.2. Its symptoms..

10.2.1. depend on the organism responsible as well as the site of the infection For example bacterial infection

10.3. Its diagnosis

10.3.1. Is done in two main ways Where.. Sample from invaded area is taken Where.. Microorganism are cultured

10.4. Its risk factors

10.4.1. Include HIV or AIDS Cancer Taking immunosuppressants

11. Penicillins

11.1. were

11.1.1. the first antibiotic that doctors used they are a group of antibacterial drugs that attack a wide range of bacteria.

11.2. There are several antibiotics in the penicillin class

11.2.1. such as Amoxicillin Penicillin G Ampicillin Piperacillin

11.3. Therapeutic uses

11.3.1. for example Anthrax Lower and upper respiratory tract infections Endocarditis Meningitis

11.4. Risk factors

11.4.1. for taking penicillin Pregnancy or breast feeding Kidney disease GI infections Drug to drug interaction

11.5. Side effects

11.5.1. common diarrhea headache nausea skin rashes

11.5.2. less common shortness of the breath joint pain abdominal cramps sore mouth / tongue

12. Necrosis

12.1. Is

12.1.1. irreversible cell death caused by Hypoxia Ischemia biological agents chemical agents physical agents immunological reactions Leading to cell membrane rupture ER break down ribosomes shed off Leading to changes in the mitochondrial like loss of cristae loss of intramitochondrial granules swelling Leading to changes inside nucleus lit That include Leading to changes inside cytoplasm Like types of necrosis are..

13. How to avoid burns

13.1. simply by being

13.1.1. careful around fire sources

13.1.2. careful with dealing hot substances

13.1.3. careful with electricity

13.1.4. careful with chemicals

14. Symptoms of inflammation

14.1. Include

14.1.1. Pain

14.1.2. Redness

14.1.3. Immobility

14.1.4. Swelling

14.1.5. Heat

15. Antibiotic Resistance

15.1. Can be

15.1.1. Innate

15.1.2. Acquired

15.2. Its mechanisms are

15.2.1. Producing enzyme to inactivate drug

15.2.2. Reducing drug uptake by bacteria

15.2.3. Developing an altered metabolic pathway

15.2.4. Altering drug binding sites

16. Principles of antibiotic therapy

16.1. Include

16.1.1. Selective toxicity

16.2. Which itself is classified into

16.2.1. Bactericidal

16.2.2. Bacteriostatic

17. Types of immunity

17.1. Include

17.1.1. Innate Which involve Mechanical barriers Humoral mechanisms Cellular components

17.1.2. Adaptive Can be classified into Cell mediated response Humoral immune response