What's the Deal with Vocabulary?

Ch. 5 Zygouris Coe

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What's the Deal with Vocabulary? by Mind Map: What's the Deal with Vocabulary?

1. The role of Vocabulary in New Educational Standards-- Common Core State Standards

1.1. The standards require robust knowledge of academic vocabulary and domain specific words that are found in complex texts

1.2. The amount of reading one engages in is an indicator of the vocabulary size one recognizes and uses in any given language.

2. Vocabulary instruction and beyond

2.1. Providing students with opportunities to play with, and manipulate words and word meanings, can enable them to develop metacognitive and flexible understanding of words in every content area classroom.

2.1.1. Good vocabulary instruction makes students excited, curious about, and more attentive to words

3. Student Independence

3.1. For students to become independent readers, they need to learn how to identify the meaning of words during reading.

3.1.1. Context Clues

3.1.1.1. Contextual analysis or using context clues can help with constructing word meanings during reading. Because context clues require the reader to make inferences about relationships between unfamiliar words and the context, not all students (Especially ELs) would be able to perceive or make those connections.

3.2. Etymology

3.2.1. The study of the origin and history of a word. Using the study of word origins can help students remember meanings and grasp the relevance of words, beyond their definition.

3.2.2. Morphemic Analysis

3.2.3. A vocabulary strategy that can help students learn the meaning of words by examining morphemes, the meaningful word units or parts (roots, prefixes, suffixes).

4. Vocabulary Strategies

4.1. ABC Brainstorm

4.1.1. Use the ABC Brainstorm as a means of assessing and activating students' background knowledge on a topic.

4.1.2. Students can come up with as many words (that begin with a different letter of the alphabet) as they know about a topic.

4.1.3. Concept of definition map

4.1.3.1. Word maps and charts help students expand word meanings and discover relationships among words.

4.1.3.1.1. Concept of definition map invites students to classify the word/concept (What is it?). describe its core features (What is it like? What are its properties?), provide examples (What are some examples of the word/concept), and also compare it with related words/concepts (What can you compare it to?)

5. Effective vocabulary instruction

5.1. Requires intentional planning, rich and robust opportunities for students to learn words, word meanings, and related concepts.

5.1.1. The goal of vocabulary instruction is to help students learn the meanings of many words so they can read and comprehend the texts of the discipline, communicate effectively, and achieve academically.

6. How many Words to teach?

6.1. When planning vocabulary instruction, remember that vocabulary development in the disciplines is complex and demanding.

6.1.1. Teach vocabulary that will result in content knowledge, in quality academic discourse, in transfer to other subjects and contexts, and develop a classroom environment that is rich in discipline- specific vocabulary, in language, in classroom talk, and one that promotes an appreciation for words and further learning.

7. Word Tiers

7.1. In 1987 Beck, McKeown, and Omanson developed the concept of "word tiers"

7.1.1. Tier One: Representing everyday, basic words. General vocabulary that is learned through spoken language and social interactions with peers and adults.

7.1.2. Tier Two: General academic words.They are unfamiliar vocabulary students will be less likely to learn independently. Include words they will encounter and learn through reading text and through explicit classroom instruction. These are the words that the CCSS describes as "general academic words"

7.1.3. Tier Three: Rare, domain-specific words. These words are what the CCSS refers to as domain-specific words; this is highly specific, disciplinary vocabulary that lacks generalization. Generally, these words have low frequency use, they are needed to understand the concept or topic under study, and are limited to specific knowledge domains.

8. How to know which words to teach?

8.1. Acquiring and using language is an important part of learning in grades 6-12; it also appears in the CCSS standards for reading, writing, speaking, and listening, and language across grade levels. Language standard 6 in the CCSS specifically refers to "general academic words"--"Acquire and use accurately grade appropriate general academic and domain specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

8.1.1. What kind of words are "general academic words?"

8.1.1.1. These are words of great importance to understanding academic writing, but they are words that many students, especially those learning English, may not comprehend because this vocabulary is neither the language of everyday conversation, nor the subject-area or domain specific, technical, and discipline-bound words traditionally included in explicit content instruction

9. Teaching discipline specific vocabulary...

9.1. Should be non-negotiable!

9.1.1. Teachers need to teach and support general academic language, analyze text for challenging and important vocabulary and also teach the meaning of phrases, including metaphors, and nuanced meanings. In addition, teachers need to provide explicit vocabulary instruction for before, during, and after reading strategies to promote disciplinary literacy.

9.1.1.1. English Language Arts

9.1.1.1.1. Vocabulary instruction that focuses on conceptual relationships will help students make connections between individual words and larger literature concepts.

10. So what's the big deal?

10.1. Many researchers have recognized vocabulary as one of the main contributing factors in academic achievement.

10.1.1. Research suggests that for students to know a word, to learn vocabulary and comprehend text, they need to learn them incrementally over multiple exposures in a variety of contexts to the words they are trying to learn

10.1.2. In 1983, researchers Beck, McKewn, and McCaslin explained that for students to really learn a word they have to move it out of their receptive vocabulary (listening vocabulary), into their productive vocabulary (recognizing the word and accurately identify its correct meaning in a variety of contexts.)

11. But first, what is vocabulary?

11.1. There are 3 types

11.1.1. Oral Vocabulary: words that are recognized and used in speaking

11.1.2. Aural Vocabulary: a collection of words a student understands when listening to others speak.

11.1.3. Print Vocabulary: words used in reading and writing. Print vocabulary poses challenges for many students because it requires quick and accurate recognition of the written word.