Learners with Exceptionalities

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Learners with Exceptionalities by Mind Map: Learners with Exceptionalities

1. Who Are Learners with Exceptionalities?

1.1. “People-First” Language

1.1.1. The first is to put people first.

1.1.2. The second principle is to avoid making the person equal the disability

1.2. Students with Intellectual Disabilities

1.2.1. Causes of Intellectual Disabilities Genetic inheritance

1.2.2. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Students with IQs above 70 are normal.

1.3. Classifications of Intellectual Disabilities

1.3.1. Theory Into Practice Teaching Adaptive Behavior Skills

1.4. Students with Learning Disabilities

1.4.1. Identifying Students with Learning Disabilities All students must cope will all school demands, relationships, language, and personal emotions. Two grade levels behind expectations and has an IQ in the normal range is likely to be called learning disabled.

1.4.2. Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities Lower academic self-esteem than students who have no such disabilities.

1.5. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

1.5.1. Theory Into Practice Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities Emphasize prevention. Teach learning-to-learn skills. Give frequent feedback. Use teaching strategies that engage students actively in lessons. Use effective classroom management methods. Coordinate supplementary services with classroom instruction

1.6. Students with Speech or Language Impairments

1.6.1. Theory Into Practice Students with ADHD: The Role of the Teacher Associated with inattention, impulsive, and hyperactivity. Significant academic, behavior, and social problems stemming from the inability to pay attention.

1.7. Students with Speech Disorders

1.7.1. The most common are articulation (or phonological) disorders, such as omissions, distortions, or substitutions of sounds.

1.8. Students with Language Disorders

1.8.1. Impairments of the ability to understand language or to express ideas in one’s native language constitute language disorders

1.9. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

1.9.1. Causes of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders These include poor academic achievement, poor interpersonal relationships, and poor self-esteem.

1.9.2. Characteristics of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders These include poor academic achievement, poor interpersonal relationships, and poor self-esteem.

1.9.3. Students Exhibiting Aggressive Behavior Students with conduct disorders and socialized–aggressive behaviors might frequently fight, steal, destroy property, and refuse to obey teachers.

1.9.4. Students with Withdrawn and Immature Behavior Children who are withdrawn, immature, low in self-esteem, or depressed typically have few friends or play with children much younger than themselves.

1.10. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1.10.1. Theory Into Practice Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Children with Asperger syndrome may be able to function in society and can be successful in school,

1.11. Students with Sensory, Physical, and Health Impairments

1.11.1. Students with Visual Disabilities A child defined as legally blind is one whose vision is judged to be 20/200 or worse in the better eye, even with correction

1.11.2. Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing The appropriate classification of an individual with hearing loss depends on the measures required to compensate for the problem.

1.12. Students Who Are Gifted and Talented

1.12.1. Characteristics of Students who are Gifted and Talented High IQ is still considered part of the definition of gifted and talented and most students who are so categorized have IQs above 130. Terman found that children with outstanding IQs were larger, stronger, and better coordinated than other children and became better adjusted and more emotionally stable adults

1.12.2. Education of Students who are Gifted

2. What Is Special Education?

2.1. Public Law 94-142 and IDEA

2.1.1. Least Restrictive Environment Children with disabilities are educated with children who do not have disabilities as much as possible.

2.1.2. Individualized Education Program (IEP) All children served in special education must have an Individualized Education Program. The IEP describes a student’s problems and delineates a specific course of action to address these problems.

2.2. An Array of Special-Education Services

2.2.1. Every school district offers children with special needs an array of services intended to be flexible enough to meet the unique needs of all.


2.3.1. The needs of many students with disabilities can be met in the general education classroom with little or no outside assistance.

2.4. Collaboration with Consulting Teachers and other Professionals

2.4.1. Collaborations benefit from professionals such as the consulting resource room teacher, school psychologist, speech and language specialists

2.5. Resource Room Placement

2.5.1. A small number of students working with a special-education teacher.

2.6. Special-Education Class Placement with Part-Time Inclusion

2.6.1. Theory Into Practice Preparing IEPs Initial Referral The process of preparing an Individualized Education Program begins when a student is referred for assessment. Screening and Assessment The referred student is then given tests to assess strengths and weaknesses. Writing the IEP The student’s parent must sign a consent form regarding the placement decision, and in many school districts a parent must also sign the IEP.

2.6.2. Screening and Assessment

2.6.3. Writing the IEP

2.6.4. These students join other students most often for music, art, and physical education; somewhat less often for social studies, science, and mathematics; and least often for reading.


2.7.1. A self-contained special-education program is a class located in a school separately from the general education instructional program.

2.8. Related Services

2.8.1. Classroom teachers have important roles in the education of children with disabilities.

3. What Is Response to Intervention?

3.1. Tier 1: Prevention

3.1.1. Tier 1 strategies include giving clear, simple directions to ensure that all students know what to do, teaching study strategies and meta cognitive skills, using cooperative learning in small groups, and applying effective classroom management strategies

3.2. Tier 2: Immediate Intervention

3.2.1. Tier 2 interventions may involve adding time (such as after-school or summer school programs), assigning students to computer-assisted instruction, or other means of solving the immediate problem.

3.3. Tier 3: Intensive Intervention

3.3.1. Tier 3 consists of more intensive interventions for students who have not made sufficient progress in Tiers 1 and 2

4. What Is Inclusion?

4.1. Research on Inclusion

4.1.1. Referred to as mainstreaming

5. What Are Effective Strategies for Students with Disabilities in General Education?

5.1. Adapting Instruction

5.1.1. Format Adaptations for Written Assignments You can change the format in which a task is presented without changing the actual task.

5.1.2. Content Adaptations Students might require an adaptation in the content being presented

5.1.3. Adaptations in Modes of Communication Many students cannot learn information when their only means of getting it is through reading.

5.1.4. Extending Time Extending time for students to complete activities

5.1.5. Universal Design for Learning Creating materials and instructional strategies designed to meet the needs of the broadest possible range of learners.

5.2. Teaching Learning Strategies and Metacognitive Awareness

5.2.1. Strategies such as note-taking, summarization, and memorization methods have been very successful with children and adolescents who have learning disabilities

5.3. Prevention and Early Intervention

5.3.1. Could be greatly reduced if prevention and early intervention programs were more widely applied.

5.4. Tutoring and Small-Group Interventions for Struggling Readers

5.4.1. Research on a variety of one-to-one and small-group tutoring models

5.5. Computers and Students with Disabilities

5.6. Buddy Systems and Peer Tutoring

5.6.1. Provide these students with assistance from classmates without disabilities

5.7. Special-Education Teams

5.7.1. 21ST Century Learning Including All Learners Computer programs able to enlarge text have long existed to help students with visual impairments

5.8. Social Integration of Students with Disabilities

5.8.1. Teacher–student interactions as a model for the students without disabilities in the classroom.