history of radiation

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history of radiation by Mind Map: history of radiation

1. the pioneers discoveries before X-ray

1.1. Evangelista Torricelli

1.1.1. produced first recognized vacuum with the invention of the barometer

1.1.1.1. 1643

1.2. Guericke, boyle, sprengel

1.2.1. experiment with vacuum tube

1.2.1.1. 1659,1865

1.3. Isaac newton

1.3.1. built + improved the static generator

1.4. benjamin franklin

1.4.1. conduction of many electricity experiment

1.5. Abbe jean antoine nollet

1.5.1. significant improvement of the electroscope

1.5.1.1. a forerunner of the X-ray tube

1.6. william watson

1.6.1. demonstrated a current of electricity by transmitting current from a jar through wires+ vacuum tube

1.7. michael faraday

1.7.1. electromagnetic induction

1.7.1.1. led to production of better generators+ transformers for use in X-ray tubes

1.8. johann wilhelm hittorf

1.8.1. experiment with cathode rays

1.9. william crookes

1.9.1. furthers studies of cathode rays

1.9.1.1. crookes tube

1.10. Rl maddox

1.10.1. produced film with gelatin silver bromide emulsion

1.10.1.1. 1871

1.11. george eastman

1.11.1. produced + patented roll-paper film

1.11.1.1. 1884

2. Discovery of X-rays

2.1. discovered on 8 ,November, 1895 by willhelm roentgen

2.2. Roentgen worked at University of Wurzburg

2.3. did many experiment in the physics department with the cathode ray (crookes tube)

2.4. X-ray: X is the mathematical symbol for unknown quantity

2.5. Roentgen proved that by continuously producing the fluorescent effect barium platinocyanide

2.6. he had produced some sort of X -ray

2.7. Roentgen made the first successful radiograph of his wife’s hand

2.8. using a cassette loaded with a photographtic plate in which he directed the rays from tube

2.9. the bones in her hand as well as two rings were clearly visible

2.10. this was a major breakthrough in the history of medicine

2.11. unit of X-ray exposure = Roentgen

3. What is the X-rays?

3.1. is a form of electromagnetic radiation

3.2. X-rays have a wavelength in the range (0.01-10 nm)

3.3. corresponding to frequencies in the range (30 Phz- 30 Ehz) (30*10^16Hz-30*10^19Hz)

3.4. energies in the range (120eV-120KeV)

3.5. X-ray is shorter in wavelength than UV ray longer than gamma rays

3.6. in many languages X-radiation is called Rontgen radiation after Wilhelm C. Rontgen who is usually credited as unknown type of radiation

3.7. correct spelling of X-ray in English language includes the variants X-ray + X ray

3.8. Xray is used as the phonetic pronunciation for the letter X

4. the discovery of radioactivity

4.1. Henri Becquerel in 1896

4.2. the discovery of Radioactivity while Becquerel investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts

4.3. in 1903 he shared the Nobel Prize in physics with Pierre + Marie curie

4.3.1. in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity

4.4. Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei

4.5. the nucleus emits particles \ electromagnetic rays during this process

4.6. the first use of the word (radioactivity ) appeared in

4.6.1. 1899

4.7. unit of radioactivity = becquerel , curie

4.8. the discoveries of Marie Sklodowska Curie + Pierre Curie

4.8.1. 1897

4.9. the curies shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Henri Becquerel + Nobel Prize in Chemistry