Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry by Mind Map: Organic Chemistry

1. Homologous Series

1.1. hydrocarbons

1.1.1. saturated

1.1.1.1. alkanes

1.1.1.1.1. single bonds

1.1.2. unsaturated

1.1.2.1. alkenes

1.1.2.1.1. double bond

1.1.2.2. alkynes

1.1.2.2.1. triple bond

1.1.3. cyclic

1.1.3.1. cyclopropane

1.2. alcohols

1.2.1. Hydroxyl group (OH)

1.2.1.1. primary

1.2.1.1.1. (OH)

1.2.1.2. secondary

1.2.1.2.1. (OH)2

1.2.1.3. tertirary

1.2.1.3.1. (OH)3

1.3. alkyl halides

1.3.1. R-X

1.4. aromatics

1.4.1. benzene

1.4.1.1. phenyl group - missing one carbon

1.5. aldehydes

1.5.1. carbonyl group

1.5.1.1. bonded to a hydrogen atom

1.5.1.2. bonded to 2 carbon atoms

1.5.1.3. bonded to a second oxygen atoms which is bonded to another C-atom

1.6. ketones

1.7. carboxylic acid

1.7.1. carboxyl group

1.8. esters

1.9. amines

1.9.1. ammonia

1.9.1.1. N-atom bonded to one or more alkyl groups

1.9.1.2. N-atom bonded to a carbonyl group

1.10. amides

2. reactions

2.1. addition reaction

2.1.1. hydrogenation

2.1.1.1. alkene/alkyne to alkane

2.1.1.2. alkene/alkyne +Hx to alkyl halide

2.1.1.3. aldehydes to alcohols

2.2. elimination reaction

2.2.1. dehydrohalogenation

2.2.1.1. alkyl halides to alkene/alkyne

2.2.2. dehydration

2.2.2.1. alchohols to alkene/alkyne

2.2.3. dehydrogenation

2.2.3.1. alkenes/alkynes to alkanes

2.3. substitution reaction

2.3.1. halogenation

2.3.1.1. alkanes to alkyl halides

2.3.2. NH3

2.3.2.1. alkyl halides to amines

2.4. condensation reaction

2.4.1. amines + carboxylic acid to form amides

2.4.2. alcohols to ethers

2.5. esterification

2.5.1. carboxylic acid + alcohol

2.6. hydrolysis

2.6.1. of esters

2.6.2. of amides

2.7. oxidation

2.7.1. alkane to alcohol

2.8. reduction

2.9. complete combustion

2.9.1. products are CO2 and water

2.10. incomplete combustion

2.10.1. products are CO2, CO and water.

3. plastics

3.1. polymers

3.1.1. monomers

3.2. reactions

3.2.1. addition polymerization

3.2.2. condensation

3.2.3. polymerization

4. naming

4.1. identify parent chains (root)

4.1.1. identify double/triple bonds

4.2. identify substituent groups

4.2.1. alkyl halide

4.2.2. alkyl

4.3. use prefixes

4.3.1. meth-1

4.3.2. eth-2

4.3.3. para, meta etc. for cyclic compounds

4.4. use suffixes at the end

4.4.1. -ane

4.4.2. -ene

4.4.3. -iol

4.4.4. -al

4.4.5. -yne

4.4.6. -one