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GI impaction by Mind Map: GI impaction

1. Hypocapnia

1.1. Predisposing factor

1.1.1. Hyperventilation

1.1.2. Exciment

1.1.3. Compensatory to metabolic acidosis

1.2. Treatment

1.2.1. The treatment depends on the underlying cause.

1.3. Client education

2. Metabolic acidosis

2.1. Predisposing factor

2.1.1. Diarrhea

2.1.2. Renal failure

2.2. Treatment

2.2.1. Add bicarbonate with treatment of the underlying condition

2.2.2. Fluid therapy

2.3. Client education

2.3.1. Should be serum potassium monitoring

3. Abdominal distention

3.1. Predisposing factor

3.1.1. Teeth problem

3.1.2. Age

3.1.3. Quality of feed

3.2. Treatment

3.2.1. For bloat

3.2.1.1. Warm water enemas

3.2.1.2. Tympasol 300 ml. mix warm water 3 L

3.2.1.3. Supportive with Vit B complex

3.2.1.4. Fluid therapy

3.2.1.5. Gas releasing by trocar

3.2.2. For GI impaction

3.2.2.1. Enemas with liquid parafin

3.2.2.2. Promote peristasis such as Metoclopramide or Cisapride

3.2.2.3. Parasympatheic stimulant: Cholinomimitic like Carbachol or Neostigmine

3.2.2.4. Supportive with Vit B complex

3.2.2.5. Fluid therapy

3.3. Client education

3.3.1. Feed chop for elephant

3.3.2. Check quality of feed

3.3.3. Becareful elephant eat foreign body

3.3.4. Drinking enough water 200-250 L/d

4. Anorexia

4.1. Predisposing factor

4.1.1. Pain

4.1.2. stress

4.1.3. low quality feed

4.2. Treatment

4.2.1. Fluid therapy

4.2.2. Glucose, Vitamin Supplement

4.3. Client education

4.3.1. Feed crop

4.3.2. Feed supplement

5. Hypoproteinemia

5.1. Predisposing factor

5.1.1. Decreased Synthesis like hepatic failure, chronic malnutrition

5.1.2. Increased Loss like blood loss, Protein-losing nephropathies

5.1.3. Malnutrition

5.2. Treatment

5.2.1. The treatment depends on the underlying cause.

5.2.2. Providing nutritional support

5.3. Client education

5.3.1. Force feed

6. Hypoalbuminemia

7. Constipation

7.1. Predisposing factor

7.1.1. GI hypomotility

7.1.2. Poor digestive process and feed quality

7.1.3. Reduce drinking

7.2. Treatment

7.2.1. Enemas with with liquid parafin

7.2.2. Fluid therapy

7.2.3. Increase peristalsis : Neostigmine

7.3. Client education

7.3.1. Laxative feed supplement : tamarind

7.3.2. Enough water source

8. GI Hypomotility

8.1. Predisposing factor

8.1.1. Toxin contaminate from food

8.1.2. Hypocalcemia

8.1.3. Poor digestive process and feed quality

8.1.4. Reduce drinking

8.2. Treatment

8.2.1. Fluid therapy

8.2.2. Increase peristalsis : Neostigmine 0.02 mg/kg IM

8.3. Client education

8.3.1. Laxative feed supplement : tamarind

8.3.2. Enough water source

9. Leukocytosis

9.1. Predisposing factor

9.1.1. Infection

9.1.2. Inflammation

9.2. Treatment

9.2.1. ABO

9.2.2. inflammatory drug