WASTE MANAGEMENT; EARTH,WATER, SOIL AND MINERAL RESOURCES

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WASTE MANAGEMENT; EARTH,WATER, SOIL AND MINERAL RESOURCES by Mind Map: WASTE MANAGEMENT; EARTH,WATER, SOIL AND MINERAL RESOURCES

1. Soil minerals serve as both sources and sinks of essential plant nutrients. As primary minerals that originally formed at high temperatures and pressures in igneous and metamorphic rocks are weathered in soils, they release plant nutrients into the soil solution.

1.1. Soils are complex mixtures of minerals, water, air, organic matter, and countless organisms that are the decaying remains of once-living things. It forms at the surface of land. it is called the skin of the earth. Soil is capable of supporting plant life and is vital to life on earth.

1.1.1. Specialized erosion control practices have been developed for use within stream channels, forest areas, and construction sites.

1.1.2. One of the most effective means of reducing erosion is to maintain a vegetative or residue cover on the soil surface.

1.2. Erosion is a process where natural forces like water, wind, ice, and gravity wear away rocks and soil. It is a geological process, and part of the rock cycle. Erosion occurs at the Earth's surface, and has no effect on the Earth's mantle and core.

1.2.1. Excessive erosion can threaten the production of agricultural and forest products.

1.2.2. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land surfaces.

2. Minerals are solid substances that are present in nature and can be made of one element or more elements combined together (chemical compounds). Gold, Silver and carbon are elements that form minerals on their own. They are called native elements.

2.1. Mineral resource is the mineral deposit consisting of useful concentration that may or may not exceed economic cost for obtaining the valuable minerals. The technological process, the needs of the economy and prices in the market, depends on whether and when the rock/mineral becomes raw material.

3. Water erosion is the detachment and removal of soil material by water. The process may be natural or accelerated by human activity. The rate of erosion may be very slow to very rapid, depending on the soil, the local landscape, and weather conditions.

3.1. Water erosion may occur within rills, interrill areas (the regions between rills), gullies, ephemeral gullies, stream channels, forest areas, and construction sites.

4. It takes a massive amount of water to generate energy, and it takes a huge quantity of energy to process water that can be utilized by humans for drinking and other purposes.

4.1. Energy and water are related in just about every way you can imagine. The water supply sector utilizes large amounts of energy to transport, treat, and deliver water. On the flip side, vast quantities of water are required to generate power. As it continues to grow and pressure increases on our water and energy resources, the linkages between water and energy become more important.

5. Energy resources are all forms of fuels used in the modern world, either for heating, generation of electrical energy, or for other forms of energy conversion processes.

5.1. Energy resources can be roughly classified in three categories: renewable, fossil, and nuclear.

6. Water, contains two kinds of energy. Kinetic energy is used during the execution of processes, such as movement. Because of this water can flow and waves can exist. Water also contains potential energy. Potential energy is stored in the water, but not used. This energy can become useful when water starts to flow. It will be transferred to kinetic energy that will cause movement.

6.1. Water is the most abundant substance on the earth's surface.

6.2. 71% of the earth's surface water is oceans.

6.3. 0.4% of Earts's water is freshwater that humans can utilize

6.4. The Earth's water cycle is a global mechanism that can help in determining how much water is available in different parts of the world.

6.5. Most freshwater are found in glaciers, ice and immense ice sheet.

6.6. Many uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities.

7. Soil serves as a reservoir of water and nutrients, as a medium for the filtration and breakdown of injurious wastes, and as a participant in the cycling of carbon and other elements through the global ecosystem.

7.1. Soil is especially vulnerable to erosion if it is bare or exposed.

7.1.1. Human Activities that leave the soil exposed and speed up erosion:

7.1.1.1. Agricultural Depletion,

7.1.1.2. Overgrazing Animals

7.1.1.3. Deforestation,

7.1.1.4. Development and Expansion

7.1.1.5. Mining

7.1.2. Mining is an economically important industry for many countries but it comes at a cost. Mining can result in the pollution of natural resources, harm to the biodiversity of habitats, and erosion of the land.

7.1.3. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.

7.1.4. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.

7.1.5. Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.

8. Waste management is the precise name for the collection, transportation, disposal or recycling and monitoring of waste. This term is assigned to the material, waste material that is produced through human being activity. This material is managed to avoid its adverse effect over human health and environment.

8.1. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9003 is an act providing for an ecological management waste program, creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds therefore and for other purposes

8.2. Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process.