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Rocket clouds

1. Freez - cool down

2. melt - Add heat

3. Condensation - cool down


4.1. In a liquid, the particles are more loosely packed than in a solid and are able to flow around each other, giving the liquid an indefinite shape.

4.2. liquid will conform to the shape of its container.

5. GAS

5.1. In a gas, the particles have a great deal of space between them and have high kinetic energy. 

5.2. A gas has no definite shape or volume. If unconfined, the particles of a gas will spread out indefinitely; if confined, the gas will expand to fill its container. 

5.3. When a gas is put under pressure by reducing the volume of the container, the space between particles is reduced and the gas is compressed. 


6.1. The Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) was created by scientists in 1995. 

6.2. Eric Cornell and Carl Weiman, scientists at the Joint Institute for Lab Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colorado, cooled a sample of rubidium to within a few degrees of absolute zero. At this extremely low temperature, molecular motion comes very close to stopping. Since there is almost no kinetic energy being transferred from one atom to another, the atoms begin to clump together.

6.3. From just above Absolute zero (-273°C)


7.1. Plasma consists of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy. The noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon) are often used to make glowing signs by using electricity to ionize them to the plasma state. 

7.2. Plasma is not a common state of matter here on Earth, but it may be the most common state of matter in the universe

7.3. Stars are essentially superheated balls of plasma. 


8.1. In a solid, particles are packed tightly together so they don't move much. 

8.2. The electrons of each atom are constantly in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position. Because of this, particles in a solid have very low kinetic energy.

8.3. Solids have a definite shape, as well as mass and volume, and do not conform to the shape of the container in which they are placed. Solids also have a high density, meaning that the particles are tightly packed together. 

9. Sublimation Add heat

10. Evaporation - add heat