ASD: A Greater Focus on a Universal Ideal

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ASD: A Greater Focus on a Universal Ideal by Mind Map: ASD: A Greater Focus on a Universal Ideal

1. As stated in the 1948 UN Human rights declaration, "disregard for human rights has... outraged conscience of mankind". The term "conscience" can be defined as "the guide to the rightness of one's behavior", a conscience can reflect positively as the need to protect those who are unable to protect themselves, therefore the lack of specified rights for children with ASD should result in the outrage of mankind's conscience because they are unable to vouch for themselves and educational rights are not supporting them.

2. Future Directions of ASD Education

2.1. Needs to have a greater focus on the needs of the individual countries.

2.2. Focus on the needs of ASD education and the circumstances of the country of focus.

2.3. Having a greater emphasis on the advancements in technology can help create a more universal education system that will work for every country and can be adapted for individual regions.

3. Contributors: Katherine Metcalf, Erin Barnes, and Erin Earley

4. Past Focus on ASD Education

4.1. Most countries like Asia follow technology patterns like the United States and European countries. However, Asia is predominately more willing to encourage creativity and thinking outside the box, which could result in better ways to educate.

4.2. Focus on globalization has helped change what has been focused on in the past. A switch to keep up with the growing concern that education in the US isn't keeping up with education in other parts of the country. This is part of an initiative to look at the education of those with disabilities.

4.3. The model didn't fit for every country's individual needs and circumstances. Some were providing the Rolls Royce of education to a very select few and those in outlying areas were not getting the help they need. It was a broken system that needed improvement.

4.3.1. A change was needed as children were suffering the consequences of a lack of education regarding Autism and the behaviors associated with it. Children in chains by their own parents, one mother eventually killed her own son for the lack of knowledge regarding the behaviors associated with Autism and how to deal with those behaviors.

4.3.1.1. The growing concern over test scores in the United States was turning the focus of learning away from a model that would fit international needs and individual strengths.

4.4. In 1975 the United Nations made a declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons.

4.4.1. Rights were extended to all disabled persons "without any exception whatsoever and without distinction" (The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled Persons, 1975, 1).

4.4.2. Disabled persons have the right to human dignity as well as political and civil rights (The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled Persons, 1975, 1)..

4.4.3. Disabled persons have the right to economic security and an acceptable level of living (The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled Persons, 1975, 2).

4.4.4. Disabled persons have the right to qualified legal aid and if legal proceedings are instituted against them, their mental or physical disabilities are taken into account (The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled Persons, 1975, 2).

4.4.5. The right to a quality education is not included in this declaration.

5. Mainstreaming International Models of Education of ASD

5.1. Inclusive education movement began in the Nordic countries, then developed in the United States (Moberg, S. (1997). Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 20, 30).

5.2. Including disabled children in mainstream education is now standard policy due to the United Nations ‘Education for All’ programs. Educational reform has changed the curriculum to provide for the needs of those with disabilities (Moberg, S. (1997). Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 20, 30).

5.2.1. Finland

5.2.1.1. 80% of special education students are educated full time

5.2.1.2. 16% of children are receiving special education

5.2.1.3. 90% of special education students are taught in integrated classrooms

5.2.2. United States

5.2.2.1. 10% of children are receiving special education

5.2.2.2. 40% of special education students are taught in integrated classrooms

5.2.3. Estonia

5.2.3.1. Special education is presently segregated

5.3. The success of implementing integrated classrooms depends on individual teachers’ belief and commitment to new programs (Moberg, S. (1997). Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 20, 31).

5.3.1. Research was conducted on teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of special needs students in mainstream education.

5.3.1.1. Finland

5.3.1.1.1. Teacher attitudes were the least critical

5.3.1.1.2. Inclusion is already accepted as an idea

5.3.1.2. United States

5.3.1.2.1. Integration is an accepted policy

5.3.1.2.2. Teacher attitudes towards inclusion are positive

5.3.1.3. Estonia

5.3.1.3.1. Teacher attitudes were the most critical

5.3.1.3.2. “Inclusion is a new idea breeding prejudice and resistance” (Moberg, S. (1997). Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 20, 38).

6. Present ASD Education focus

6.1. Most countries like Asia follow technology patterns like the United States and European countries. However, Asia is predominately more willing to encourage creativity and thinking outside the box, which could result in better ways to educate.

6.2. Moving towards a greater cry for inclusion in school and education systems

6.3. New Zealand had their struggles in find a good compromise in education for children with Autism. They adapted their model to include remote areas and reassessed focus so that they can better educate all. They are still in the process of expanding their education to include teenagers, who are their biggest source of concern as of now.

6.4. Singapore is looking to expand their inclusion of education to include those with disabilities. The are working to include and understand each person's unique talents and strengths so that they can nurtured so that they as individuals can create their own space in their society.

7. Rights to an Equal Education with an Invisible Disability

7.1. Article 26 of the The Universal Declaration of Human Rights discusses the tolerance for other nations so our world can live in harmony, but does not elaborate on a plan to teach tolerance within our own nation of those with an unseen disability.

7.1.1. Article 19 in the same declaration states the right of freedom of expression, but without the educational right of being taught tolerance, students will be unable to learn and accept different forms of expression. Those with ASD have shown to have different ways of expressing emotion and ideas, without being taught tolerance and understanding, the freedom of expression is merely an invitation to isolation from peers.

7.2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights goes in depth as to how the world will cater to the population "without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, ...(UN. 1948)" but does not specifically state anything about being unbiased towards mental disabilities.

7.3. Springs elaborates on the importance of language rights within education but does not take into account the different nonverbal ways of communication that a person with ASD might use.

7.3.1. Springs' amendments to the world's constitution are linguistically, financially, and religiously inclusive but do not elaborate on the educational rights of those with mental disabilities.

7.3.1.1. To achieve equal education there needs to be a defined educational right explicitly for those with ASD and other mental disabilities. A right to in school interventions to provide the assistance that is needed for the child/adult to succeed and the right for behavioral support in a school setting.

7.3.1.1.1. Springs states "educational rights are justified by their contribution to society. (Springs pg. 152)". Without a defined educational right for ASD education, this group will fail to progress, therefore, their general education rights would have failed them.