NS: Yanda, Yaso, Jasmine, Anaelle

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NS: Yanda, Yaso, Jasmine, Anaelle by Mind Map: NS: Yanda, Yaso, Jasmine, Anaelle

1. Scope & Application (Yaso)

1.1. different branches

1.1.1. physics

1.1.1.1. nature and properties of matter and energy

1.1.2. chemistry

1.1.2.1. the substance of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions

1.1.3. biology

1.1.3.1. living organisms

1.1.4. geology

1.1.4.1. physical structure and substance of the earth

1.1.5. astronomy

1.1.5.1. celestial objects, space and the physical universe as a whole

1.2. purpose

1.2.1. we use natural science to understand the natural world around us

1.2.1.1. relies on empirical evidence: what we perceive with our senses

1.2.2. the aim of natural sciences is to establish laws or rules that apply generally

1.2.2.1. most laws are causal. they offer a prediction of what can happen as a consequence of an event

1.3. why we use it

1.3.1. understanding science is important for the general public as well as the scientific community

1.3.1.1. it's a part of our daily lives

1.3.1.2. this knowledge is shared as we have a common understanding of scientific concepts

2. Language & Concepts ( Jasmine )

2.1. Key Concepts

2.1.1. Allow others to understand whether something qualifies as part of natural science

2.1.1.1. Further allows us to know what makes up various natural sciences

2.1.2. logical language

2.1.2.1. Must explain causes and effect in order to clarify what the findings signify

2.2. Key Terms

2.2.1. Give AOK a good foundation and structure

2.2.2. Vocabulary is precise

2.2.2.1. Allows scientists to understand and communicate

2.2.2.1.1. Understand and know what others are saying

2.2.2.1.2. Distinguish parts from others

2.2.3. Examples

2.2.3.1. case study

2.2.3.2. correlation

2.2.3.3. statistical

2.2.3.4. Holistic

2.2.3.4.1. aim

2.2.3.4.2. hypothesis

2.2.3.4.3. method

2.2.3.4.4. results

2.2.3.4.5. conclusion

2.3. Language

2.3.1. Logical Language

2.3.2. How scientists distribute findings to world

2.3.2.1. Very important as language they uses affects how others absorb knowledge scientists are attempting to share

2.3.2.1.1. Mathematical language is central

2.3.2.1.2. Must be careful if uncertain about something when communicating

2.4. Metaphors

2.4.1. Are they appropriate

2.4.1.1. Give abstract things a human value; easier to understand scientific concepts

2.4.1.1.1. can further relate to a previously known concept when understanding a new one

2.4.1.2. Help use to understand things or discover new things; helping us learn

2.4.1.2.1. Ie on how volcanoes form

2.4.1.2.2. Where rain comes from

2.4.1.3. Makes complicated things more understandable

2.4.1.4. Alternative to making new words; as scientific subjects have too much specific vocabulary, would become complicated

2.4.2. Define: literary figure of speech; describes subject by supporting it on some comparison

2.4.2.1. Examples:

2.4.2.1.1. Electrons get excited/promoted ( when jumping shells )

2.4.2.1.2. Florine is hungry for electrons

2.4.3. Models = realistic representation of metaphor

2.4.4. Used to solve particular problems and make future predictions

2.5. Conventions

2.5.1. Ways that things are done within a particular activity or area

2.5.1.1. Natural sciences: rules or guidelines for experimental procedures and publishing of results

2.5.1.1.1. ensure replicability of finding of experiment

2.5.1.1.2. ensures presentation of results is accurate with very precise language and numbers

2.6. Non-language forms of communication

2.6.1. Symbols

2.6.1.1. constants

2.6.1.1.1. planck constant = h

2.6.1.1.2. caesium hyperfine frequency = DeltanuCs

2.6.1.1.3. Speed of light in a vacuum = c

2.6.1.2. measurement units

2.6.1.2.1. time = seconds

2.6.1.2.2. length = metres

2.6.1.2.3. electrical current = amps

2.6.1.2.4. mass = kilograms

2.6.2. Diagrams

2.6.3. Latin Expressions

2.6.3.1. combination nova = means new combination ie Klebsiella pneumonia comb.nov

2.6.3.2. ex nihilo nihil fit = means nothing comes from nothing ( example all cells come from pre-existing cells )

2.6.4. Classification systems

2.6.4.1. Species

2.6.4.2. Elements

2.6.4.3. Quarts

3. Methodology (Yanda)

3.1. FALSIFICATION

3.1.1. CLINICAL TRIALS

3.1.1.1. Measurable, controllable, repeatable

3.1.1.2. Collection of data → does it work (... is the prediction correct?)

3.1.1.2.1. Double-Blinded: distribution of placebo and the real product through random selection or sampling

3.1.1.2.2. Randomised: doctors would not know themselves what is prescribed to patients (placebo or the real product)

3.1.1.3. Outcome

3.1.1.3.1. peer review and repetition of the experiments untill approved

3.1.1.3.2. refutation

3.1.2. FIELD STUDY

3.1.2.1. Using: Inductive Method

3.1.2.1.1. Observations

3.1.2.1.2. Collection of data & looking for patterns

3.1.2.1.3. Interpretation of data (looking for strong correlation)

3.1.2.1.4. Hypothesis / Conjecture (explains the data collected

3.1.2.1.5. Theory

3.2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD

3.2.1. HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD

3.2.1.1. measurable, controllable, repeatable observations/data

3.2.1.2. Outcomes:

3.2.1.2.1. confirmation of the hypothesis with peer review and repetition untilll apporved

3.2.1.2.2. refutation/falsification

3.2.2. INDUCTIVE METHOD

3.2.2.1. Observations

3.2.2.2. Collection of data & looking for patterns

3.2.2.3. Interpretation of data (looking for strong correlation)

3.3. Theory VS Law

3.3.1. Theory: explains why natural phenomena occur

3.3.2. Law: summaries a set of observations about natural phenomena

3.4. Precision VS Accuracy

3.4.1. Accuracy: the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured

3.4.2. Precision: the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made the same way

4. Historical Development (Anaelle)

4.1. Karl Popper

4.1.1. Science is fallible

4.1.1.1. Decision of switching from one paradigm to another one can be influenced bu non-scientific factors

4.1.1.2. A paradigm in science should be confirmed by experiment and not based on a belief. This doesn’t necessarily make scientific knowledge relative, but it proves that it also depends on judgement. And even though judgement can be fallible, it doesn’t make it any less rational.

4.2. Thomas Kuhn

4.2.1. .

4.2.1.1. Paradigm is a pattern

4.2.1.2. Cyclical development - scientific discovery

4.3. History of science was believed to be linear

5. Personal Knowledge

5.1. What is the nature of the contribution of individuals you know personally to this area, in terms of your experience?

5.1.1. Yaso: My father is a neuroscientist. He conducts experiments to learn and discover new things about certain areas of the brain. He observes things, makes hypotheses and test them. His work is peer-reviewed and published for the scientific community and general public to read.

5.2. What responsibilities rest upon YOU by virtue of YOUR knowledge in this area?

5.3. What assumptions underlie YOUR own approach to this knowledge?

5.4. What are the implications of this area of knowledge in terms of YOUR individual perspective?

5.5. Consider the WOKs in relation to your experiences, how have these affected what and how you know in this AOK?

5.5.1. Jasmine: This AOK does not rely on intuition nor emotions due to the conventions that are put in place, hence going against some WOK