L1 - Background

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L1 - Background by Mind Map: L1 - Background

1. 1. What is culture?

1.1. A unique meaning & info system shared by a group and transmitted across generations that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well being and derive meaning from life

1.2. The way we do things around here / Learned behaviour / centres on values & beliefs / Dynamic and changing

1.3. Identity = Culture can be used to describe activities or behaviours, refer to the heritage or tradition of a group, describe rules and norms, describe learning or problem solving, define the org of a group or refer to the origins of a group

1.3.1. Layers of Identity Individual Identity (unique sense of personhood held by each person Social Identity (Collective sense of belonging to a group, identifying as having something in common) Cultural Identity (Sense of belonging to a distinct ethnic & cultural group)

1.3.2. Through globalisation and intercultural interactions, increases people who speak more than 1 language, experience conflict not with other groups

1.4. Features

1.4.1. Group adaptation

1.4.2. Pervasive

1.4.3. Integrated

1.4.4. Values & ideas Cultural Values Guiding principles that motivate or justify behaviour / Stds for evaluation / e.g Individualism vs collectivism Cultural beliefs Proposition regarded as true / Guide behaviour Cultural norms Accepted std of behavior e.g eye contact Cultural attitudes Evaluations e.g prejudice / stereotypes, attitudes to gvt style (democracy)

1.4.5. Dynamic

1.4.6. Learned

1.4.7. Explicit & Implicit rules

1.4.8. Transmitted through spoken & non verbal

1.4.9. Involves dominant & subcultural groupings

1.4.10. There are objective elements (e.g art / mass media) and subjective elements (e.g values / beliefs)


1.6. Factors that influence the creation of cultures

1.6.1. Group life Division of labour / Efficiency

1.6.2. Environments Climate / Pop density / Arable land / Diseases

1.6.3. Resources Food / Water / Money

1.6.4. Human Mind Basic needs / personality / cognitive abilities / emotion

1.7. Different layers of culture

1.7.1. National & regional culture

1.7.2. Gender, sex & sexuality

1.7.3. Generation

1.7.4. Social class

1.7.5. Corporate / professional

2. 2. Cultural Intelligence

2.1. The capacity to relate to, and work effectively with people from different cultures

2.1.1. Knowledge

2.1.2. Motivation

2.1.3. Skill

2.2. Multicultural counseling competencies

2.2.1. Awareness of own values & beliefs

2.2.2. Awareness of client worldviews

2.2.3. Culturally appropriate intervention strategies

2.3. Builds further on multiple IQ's / Enables measurement / Predicts behaviour in cross cultural interactions

3. 3. Intercultural Anxiety

3.1. Confrontation with unfamiliar cultures (more anxious during intergroup interactions)

3.2. Interaction anxiety is the affective component of uncertainty

3.3. Double meaning of anxiety

3.3.1. Hampers comms vs increased alertness

3.3.2. Non-linear relationship

4. 4. Intercultural differences & challenges

4.1. Migration & settlement

4.2. Schooling

4.3. Employment

4.4. Comms

4.4.1. Language

4.4.2. Non verbal

4.4.3. Stereotypes

4.4.4. Jumping to conclusions

4.4.5. Stress

4.4.6. Org constraints

4.5. Health

4.6. Relationships

4.7. Status

4.8. Isolation & segregation

4.9. Discrimination & prejudice

4.10. Third culture kids

4.10.1. Citizens of everywhere and nowhere

5. 5. Cross Cultural vs Intercultural

5.1. Cross cultural = contrast between 2 cultural groups (e.g mexicans and greeks)

5.2. Intercultural = 2 groups get together, interact and communicate

5.3. Etics and emics

5.3.1. Etics = consistencies / universals (e.g dancing)

5.3.2. Emics = inconsistencies / differences (cultural specific)

5.4. Research method in intercultural psychology

5.4.1. Potential problems: Researchers own cultural bias Confounding variables (socioeconomic / impression mngt)

5.4.2. Issues: Bias = Diffs that dont have the same meaning within & across cultures Theoretical framework bias (Researcher uses their own culture as a ref for interpreting findings Conceptual bias (Degree to which a theory or set of hypotheses compared across cultures are equivalent) Method bias (sampling bias & Procedural bias) Linguistic bias (are research protocols semantically equivalent across languages used in study) Measurement bias (degree to which measures used to collect data in diff cultures are equally valid & reliable) Equivalence = State of similarity in conceptual; meaning and empirical method btw cultures Psychometric equivalence ( structural equivalence & internal reliability)

5.4.3. Measuring cultural values Hofestede's cultural dimensions Power distance Individualism Masculinity (competitiveness, achievements, heroism, assertiveness & material rewards) Uncertainty avoidance Long term orientation (looking to the future) Limitations: Behavioural measures Seating in class Lost letter technique Miligram Other Problems with measuring culture Problems with Psych measures Not visible Approaches in cross cultural studies Quantitative Qualitative See slide on differences