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Theme 3 by Mind Map: Theme 3

1. International Law and Norms

1.1. International Law- a body of laws of rules that binds states and other agents in a world politics and is considered to have the status of law.

1.1.1. Customary International Law- international law that usually develops slowly, over time, as states recognize practices as appropriate and correct

1.1.1.1. Obligation- the degree to which states are legal bound by by an international rule. High-obligation rules must be performed bin good faith and, if breached, require reparations to the injured party.

1.1.1.2. Precision- the degree to which International legal obligations are fully specified. More precise rules narrow the scope for reasonable interpretation.

1.1.1.3. Delegation- the degree to which third parties, such as courts, arbitrators, or mediators, are given authority to implement, interpret, and apply International legal rules; to resolve disputes over the rules; and to make additional rules.

1.2. International Norms- standards of behavior for actors with a given identity; norms define what actions are "right" or appropriate under particular circumstances.

1.2.1. Transnational Advocacy Networks (TANs)- a set of individuals and nongovernmental organizations acting in pursuit of a normative objective.

1.2.2. Boomerang Model- a process through which NGOs in one state are able to activate transnational linkages to bring pressure from other states on their own governments.

1.2.3. Norms Life Cycle- a three-staged model of how norms diffuse within a population and achieve a taken-for-granted status

1.2.4. Norms Entrepreneurs- individuals or groups that seek to advance principled standards of behavior for states and other actors.

2. Human Rights

2.1. International Bill of Rights- the UDHR, ICCPR, and ICESCR, collectively. Together, these three agreements form the core of the international human rights regimes.

2.1.1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)- a declaration, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948, that defines a "common standard of achievement for all peoples" and forms the foundation of modern human rights laws.

2.1.2. International Covenant on Civil and Political (ICCPR)- the agreement, completed in 1966 and in force from 1976, that specifies the basic civil and political rights of individuals and nations. The ICCPR and ICESCR together are known as the "twin covenants".

2.1.2.1. Individual Petition- a right that permits individuals to petition appropriate international legal bodies directly if they believe a state has violated their rights.

2.1.2.2. Nonderogable Rights- rights that cannot be suspended for any reason, including at times of public emergency.

2.1.2.3. Prisoners of Conscience (POCs)- individuals imprisoned solely because of the peaceful expression of their beliefs. The term was coined by the human rights organization Amnesty International.

2.1.2.4. International Criminal Court (ICC)- a court of last resort for human rights cases that possesses jurisdiction only if the accused is a national of a state party, the crime took place on the territory of a state party, or the UN Security Council has referred to the case to the prosecutor.

2.1.3. International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)- the agreement, completed in 1966 and in force from 1976, that specifies the basic economic, social, and cultural rights of individuals and nations. The ICCPR and ICESCR together are known as the "twin covenants".