PBL CASE 11: CANCER

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PBL CASE 11: CANCER by Mind Map: PBL CASE 11: CANCER

1. Effects of smoking on health

1.1. Cardiovascular system

1.1.1. narrows arteries

1.1.2. thickens blood

1.1.3. increased risk of stroke, heart attack and other chronic heart diseases

1.1.4. increases blood pressure and heart rate

1.1.5. increases clot formation

1.2. Lungs

1.2.1. increased risk of COPDs

1.2.2. coughs, colds and wheezing

1.3. Bones

1.3.1. they become brittle and weak

1.3.2. increased risk of osteoporosis in women smokers

1.4. Stomach

1.4.1. increased risk of stomach cancer and ulcers

1.4.2. refluxes can occur

1.5. Skin

1.5.1. less oxygen gets to it

1.5.2. dull, aged and grey skin

1.6. Mouth and throat

1.6.1. bad breath and stained teeth

1.6.2. gum disease and loss of taste

1.6.3. increased risk of lip and tongue cancers

1.7. Reproduction & fertility

1.7.1. can lead to miscarriages or premature birth

1.7.2. increased risk of testicular and cervical cancers

2. How does smoking cause lung cancer?

3. Cancer risk factors

3.1. Smoking & Tobacco

3.1.1. associated with cancers of the lung, esophagus, mouth, etc

3.2. Red and processed meat

3.2.1. mainly linked to colorectal cancer

3.3. Exercise

3.3.1. reduces development and recurrence of certain cancers

3.4. Obesity

3.4.1. increases risk of developing certain cancers

3.5. Viruses & infection

3.5.1. HPV can cause cervical cancer

3.5.2. Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer

3.6. Alcohol

3.7. Family history

3.8. avoiding these risk factors is the basis of prevention of cancer

4. Approaches to cancer diagnosis

4.1. Physical examination

4.1.1. doctor feels for lumps

4.1.2. skin pigmentation

4.1.3. enlargement of an organ

4.2. Lab tests

4.2.1. check for tumor markers in blood, urine and other body fluids

4.3. Imaging tests

4.3.1. CT scan

4.3.2. MRI scan

4.3.3. Nuclear scan

4.3.3.1. Bone scan

4.3.3.2. PET scan

4.3.4. Ultrasound & X-rays

4.4. Biopsy

4.4.1. incisional

4.4.2. excisional

5. Chemotherapeutic agents

5.1. Alkylating agents

5.1.1. Nitrogen mustards

5.1.2. Alkylsulfonates

5.1.3. Miscellaneous agents

5.1.4. Nitrosureases

5.2. Plant alkaloids

5.2.1. Vinca alkaloids

5.2.2. Podophyllotoxins

5.2.3. Camptothecins

5.2.4. Taxanes

5.3. Antimetabolites

5.4. Hormonal agents

5.4.1. Glucocorticoids

5.4.2. GnRH analogs

5.4.3. Sex hormones

5.4.4. Sex hormones antagonist

5.4.5. Aromatase inhibitors

5.5. Anticancer antibiotics

5.6. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

5.7. Miscellaneous agents

6. Metastasis

6.1. the spread of tumor from the original (primary) location to another (secondary) location in the body

6.2. Cascade

6.2.1. Detachment

6.2.2. Intravasation into vessels

6.2.3. Evasion of immune system

6.2.4. Extravasation

6.2.5. Invasion and proliferation by angiogenesis

7. Staging and grading of cancer

7.1. Staging

7.1.1. tumor size

7.1.2. lymph node status

7.1.3. metastasis

7.2. Grading

7.2.1. differentiation of cells

7.2.2. nuclear pleomorphism

7.2.3. mitotic count

8. Psychology of a cancer patient

8.1. early stages

8.1.1. informing family members of the news

8.1.2. patient is fearful and anxious

8.2. middle stages

8.2.1. patient feels better

8.2.2. family provides support

8.2.3. this is the stage where treatment is initiated

8.3. later stages

8.3.1. varies depending on the prognosis