Ensuring Food Security

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Ensuring Food Security by Mind Map: Ensuring Food Security

1. Cash Based Transfers

1.1. Don't disrupt local markets

1.2. Can be used to provide incentives for keeping kids in school or following HIV treatment

1.3. encourage healthy food choices

1.4. Empower mothers

1.5. can provide food and other essentials

1.6. People fed tripled to 9.59M in 6 years

1.7. Major source of assistance for Syrian refugees

1.8. Makes up 25% of World Food Program aid portfolio

1.9. fast efficient and secure

1.10. tailored nutrition

1.11. food is local and seasonal

1.12. injects cash into local economy and support local farmers and local businesses

1.13. CBTs injected $1.29B into economies of Egypt Iraq Jordan Lebanon Turkey and Syria in 2016

2. Defining the Problem

2.1. Availability

2.2. Access

2.3. Utilization

3. Malnutrition

3.1. Mix of Minerals and Vitamins

3.2. Irreversible damage in first 2 years of life

3.3. Passed on from mother to baby

3.4. Preventing malnutrition is cheaper than treating it

3.5. $3.6B problem

4. Social

4.1. Population growth creates ever growing demand

4.2. Increased food demand is in areas with low investment in agriculture (developing countries)

4.3. As societies move to consumption of meet demand for grains increase dramatically

5. Political

5.1. Boost agricultural R&D

5.2. Improve Grain reserves

5.3. Protect natural resources

5.4. better access to quality seeds and fertilizers

5.5. tools and training for farmers

5.6. Political instability can create food instability such as with refugees

6. Environmental

6.1. 1 Million Children malnourished linked to El Nino

6.2. Storms and drought impact crops

6.3. Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho most affected

6.4. Extreme weather decimates crops

7. Economic

7.1. Lack of investment in Agriculture

7.2. Volatility in food pricing, impacts planting decisions

7.3. Food aid can disrupt local farm economy

7.4. When prices are high consumers go hungry or eat less nutritious food

7.5. Insufficient grain reserves can cause price volatility

7.6. Volatile energy prices are passed into cost of food

7.7. Volatility attracts speculation which aggravates price spikes

7.8. Access to credit for farmers is needed

8. Solutions and ideas

8.1. Roads and storage facilities

8.2. irrigation systems

8.3. Worm compost boxes to improve soil

8.4. investment support to improve productivity with better farm equipment

8.5. plant protein - "Beyond Meat"

8.6. mobile technology to share and integrate local knowledge of soil conditions, land use, crop mix,

8.7. improve land rights to encourage investment by local farmers

8.8. vertical farms

8.9. roof top farms

8.10. vertical farms less energy intensive

8.11. can grow crops made to order - reduce waste, improve connection between investment and return

8.12. vertical farms impervious to weather, pests and less susceptible to disease

8.13. vertical farms dramatically reduce water consumption

8.14. stratification and specialization of farming techniques

8.15. Urban farming

8.16. Chicago has 12,000 vacant acres available for urban farming

9. Global Food System

9.1. 2/3 of typical national diet originated in another region of the world

9.2. primary region for a crop has the most diversity

9.3. crop diversity is needed to resist disease and drought

9.4. Treaty system is required to allow countries to share crop diversity

9.5. But countries are not participating. For example only 21 of 3000 varieties of Quinoa were shared with researchers

9.6. Massive transportation costs

9.7. Energy intensive and volatile with energy prices

10. Green Revolution

10.1. Nobel winner Norman Borlaug

10.2. Reduce world hunger

10.3. 1 billion people impacted by his work

10.4. Research into improving crop yields

10.5. depleted soil, disease and poor growing conditions are stressors

10.6. National self sufficiency in basic foods like grains

10.7. experiment with different varieties which are resistant to disease and drought

10.8. change farming practices to improve yields and ensure sustainable soil conditions

10.9. Resilient to differing growing conditions

10.10. Doubled wheat yields by improving disease resistance

10.11. Doubled wheat yields again using dwarf wheat to improve performance of crop

10.12. Expanded from Mexico to the developing world in India and Pakistan

10.13. 75% of all food is corn, wheat and rice

11. Problems with Green Revolution

11.1. Used 10X more water

11.2. Surface irrigation, damming and diversion of water

11.3. Drowning of land to build damns

11.4. Land damage from waterlogging

11.5. Destruction of towns and villages

11.6. Disrupting water table and reducing drinking water

11.7. water polluted with fertilizer chemicals -carcinogens

11.8. Energy intensive - increase reliance on fossil fuels for fertilizer and mechanization

11.9. Increase from 1 calorie of fossil fuel to 1 calorie of food to 10 calories of fossil fuel for 1 calorie of food

11.10. is the entire food supply created by use of fossil fuels and will we have planet wide famine if/when fossil fuels are depleted?

12. Cash Crops

12.1. Sugar cane produces more $ but consumes 10X as much water as other crops

12.2. Local farmers often can't use the crops for subsistence farming

12.3. coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, rubber and fruit

12.4. illegal cash crops: marijuana, coca and the opium poppy

12.5. legalized marijuana in Canada could be a $5B industry

12.6. Farmers often forced to give up food crops for cash crops to repay loans to the International Monetary Fund

12.7. Cash crops dominated by large multinational corporations and push out local farmers

12.8. Benefits are employment, government income, roads for export, lower consumer prices, diversity of commodities available worldwide and year round

12.9. Problems are profit motive, soil degradation, increased insects and pests, food scarcity, less local traditional foods, small farm operations are pushed off the land.

13. Local Food Systems

13.1. Industrialized food system (Green Revolution) is not sustainable

13.2. 9 Billion people to feed

13.3. few chemical inputs

13.4. sustainable, equitable, democratic

13.5. farmers selling locally receive higher profit on the food they produce

13.6. reduce transport = reduce fossil fuels

13.7. local seasonal foods higher nutritional value

13.8. may not be able to produce sufficient yields

13.9. could be a component of food system

13.10. food consumers are stakeholders in local food system

14. Industrial Farming

14.1. Handful of companies control vast supply of farms and farm production

14.2. damaging to environment, exploits workers, displaces farmers, disrupt local economies, disrupt local food supply