General Cancer

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General Cancer by Mind Map: General Cancer

1. Primary Problem

1.1. Infection, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malnutrition, skin breakdown, pulmonary problems, bone marrow suppression

2. System

2.1. Anatomic site

2.1.1. Identified by tissue of origin Sarcomas (connective tissue, muscle, bone, and fat) Lymphomas and leukemias-hematopoietic Embryonal ectoderm (skin, glands) Endoderm (respiratory, GI and GU tracts)

2.2. Histology Grading

2.2.1. Appearance of cells and degree of differentiation are evaluated to determine how closely cells resemble tissue of origin. Poorly differentiated tumors have a worse prognosis than those closer in appearance to normal cells. Grade I Cells differ slightly from normal cells and are well differentiated. Grade II Cells are more abnormal and moderately differentiated Grade III Cells are very abnormal and poorly differentiated. Grade IV Cells are immature and primitive and undifferentiated. Cell of origin is difficult to determine. Grade X: Grade cannot be assessed.

2.3. Staging

2.3.1. 0: Cancer in situ I: Tumor limited to tissue of origin; localized tumor growth II: Limited local spread III: Extensive local and regional spread IV: Metastasis

3. Complications

3.1. Surgery, Chemo and/or Radiation

3.2. Rate of tumor growth, inventiveness, and metastasis

3.3. Metastasis to lungs, brain, liver, bone, adrenal glands

3.4. Infection, pain lymphedema, nausea, fatigue

3.5. Pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, heart failure, neuropathy, cardiac, kidney, and liver damage

3.6. Reproductive effects

3.7. Systemic effects of treatment

4. Prevention

4.1. Limit alcohol, healthy weight, exercise, high fiber low fat diet, no smoking/chewing tobacco, environmental factors, family history, health screening

4.1.1. Environmental- chemical (arsenic,formaldehyde); radiation (UV light); viral (Epsten Barr, HPV, HIV, HepB)

4.1.2. Family history - CA-125 ovarian; CA 19-9 pancreatic & gallbladder; PSA prostrate; CA 15-3, CA 27-29, HER-2 breast; kRAS colon; EGFR lung

4.2. Health screening- colonoscopy, FiTT test, mammogram

4.3. Immunizations - HPV

4.4. 7 Signs of Cancer Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge from any body orifice Thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness

5. Medications

5.1. Chemotherapy, immuniotherapy, anti-medics, antidiarrheal, appetite stimulant, corticosteriods, opioids, IV fluids, expectorants, oxygen, hormones

6. Diagnosis

6.1. Radiographic studies - CT, ultrasound, MRI/ MRA Radioisotope scans - PET scan Tumor markers/Genetic markers Bone marrow biopsy Tissue biopsy Surgery

7. Psychosocial

7.1. Fatigue, emotional, cognitive (chemo brain/ mental fog), social, depression, anxiety, fear, financial, support, survival, body image, pain, disability, infertility, altered relationships, death

8. Pain

8.1. Opioids, corticorsteroids, anticonvulsants, aromatherapy, distraction, heat, cold, massage

9. Client Education

9.1. Infection prevention, nutrition, signs & symptoms of....low platelets, bleeding, infection, dehydration, activity

9.2. Provide clear instructions and listen to the client & family concerns, expected response to treatment & side effects, health promotion, signs & symptoms of infection, line care, feeding tube care, wound care, reverse isolation, immunization, dental care, followup care, activity/fatigue, chemo fog, survivorship,

10. Labs

10.1. WBCs, RBCs, Platelets

10.1.1. Infection, hemorrhage, fatigue, anemia

11. Treatment

11.1. Supportive care - surgery for feeding tube, central line/ port, fluid replacement

11.2. Surgery and/or Chemotherapy and/or Radiation, Hematopoietic stem cell transplant, Gene therapy, hormone therapy