Unit 2 Assignment Culminating

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Unit 2 Assignment Culminating by Mind Map: Unit 2 Assignment Culminating

1. Cellular Respiration

1.1. First step of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis

1.1.1. location cell cytosol

1.2. processes

1.2.1. glucose 2 ATP invested Net +2 ATP 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate The Keto diet would not be good for Lucas somebodies body because he is running a fast race and needs a lot of high energy proteins to have an extra amount of energy for this race. The amount of ATP produced during ketosis is lower than the amount produced normally.

1.3. Looking at the entire process of respiration as a whole unit It is an exergonic process..since this process leads to release of energy.. Cellular respiration leads to break down of bigger molecules(e.g. glucose) into smaller more stable molecules….hence after the process smaller molecules have more energy than glucose molecule.

2. Third Step of Cellular Respiration: Citric Acid Cycle

2.1. Per acetyl CoA

2.1.1. Loses 2 CO2

2.1.2. 1 ATP formed

2.1.3. 3 NADH formed Electron carriers used in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

2.1.4. 1 FADNH formed

2.1.5. How are the enzymes that control metabolic pathways regulated? A number cellular respiration enzymes are controlled by the binding of regulatory molecules at one or more allosteric sites. (An allosteric site is just a regulatory site other than the active site.) Binding of a regulator to the allosteric site of an enzyme changes its structure, making it more or less active. Isocitrate dehydrogenase controls the first of these two steps, turning a six-carbon molecule into a five-carbon molecule. This enzyme is inhibited by ATP and NADH, but activated by ADP.

2.2. Catabolism occurs in the citric acid cycle where the acetyl CoA is catabolized The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway for the oxidation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein because glucose, fatty acids, and most amino acids are metabolized to acetyl-CoA or intermediates of the cycle. The citric acid cycle: the major catabolic pathway for acetyl-CoA in aerobic organisms. Acetyl-CoA, the product of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid catabolism, is taken into the cycle and oxidized to CO2 with the release of reducing equivalents (2H). Subsequent oxidation of 2H in the respiratory chain leads to phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. For one turn of the cycle, nine ATP are generated via oxidative phosphorylation and one ATP (or GTP) arises at substrate level from the conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate.

3. Glucose transport

3.1. mouth

3.1.1. esophagus Stomach Intestine