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1. 1.1.1 Information Security

1.1. is frequently used to describe the tasks of securing information that is in a digital format

1.2. is manipulated by a microprocessor (such as on a personal computer), stored on a storage device (like a hard drive or USB flash drive), and transmitted over a network (such as a local area network or the Internet).

1.3. is to ensure that protective measures are properly implemented to defend against attacks and prevent the total collapse of the system when a successful attack does occur.

1.4. as that which protects the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information on the devices that store, manipulate, and transmit the information through products, people, and procedures.

1.5. provide; integrity confidentiality availability

2. 1.1.2 Goals of Security: Confidentiality; Integrity; Availability

2.1. three protections that must be extended over information: confidentiality, integrity, and availability or CIA:

2.2. Confidentiality.

2.2.1. access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information.

2.2.2. only approved individuals are able to access important information. For example, the credit card number used to make an online purchase must be kept secure

2.2.3. can involve several different security tools, ranging from software to “scramble” the credit card number stored on the web server to door locks to prevent access to those servers.

2.3. Integrity.

2.3.1. improper information modification or destruction, and includes ensuring information nonrepudiation and authenticity.

2.3.2. ensures that the information is correct and no unauthorized person or malicious software has altered the data.

2.4. Availability.

2.4.1. timely and reliable access to and use of information.

2.4.2. ensures that data is accessible to authorized users.

3. 1.1.3 Types of Security Threats

3.1. Threats can lead to attacks on computer systems, networks and more.

3.2. There are four primary classes of threats: unstructured threats structured threats external threats internal threats

3.2.1. Unstructured threats consist of mostly inexperienced individuals using easily available hacking tools such as shell scripts and password crackers. that are only executed with the intent of testing and challenging a hacker’s skills can still do serious damage to a company virus, worm, trojan horse.

3.3. Structured threats

3.3.1. Structured threats come from hackers that are more highly motivated and technically competent . These people know system vulnerabilities, and can understand and develop exploit-code and scripts.

3.4. External threats

3.4.1. External threats can arise from individuals or organizations working outside of a company. They do not have authorized access to the computer systems or network.

3.5. Internal threats

3.5.1. occur when someone has authorized access to the network with either an account on a server or physical access to the network.

4. 1.1.4 Type of attacks to computer security

4.1. Physical – Events or attacks that steal, damage, or destroy equipment, such as servers, switches, and wiring Data – Events or attacks that remove, corrupt, deny access to authorized users, allow access to unauthorized users, or steal information

5. 1.2.1 Social Engineering

5.1. is a person who is able to gain access to equipment or a network by tricking people into providing the necessary access information

5.2. Never give out a password. Always ask for the ID of the unknown person. Restrict access of visitors. Escort all visitors. Never post your password. Lock your computer when you leave your desk. Do not let anyone follow you through a door that requires an access card.

6. 1.2.2 Data Wiping

6.1. Deleting files from a hard drive does not remove them completely from the computer.

6.2. is not completely removed until the hard drive stores other data in the same location, overwriting the previous data.

6.3. also known as secure erase is a software-based method of overwriting the data that aims to completely destroy all electronic data residing on a hard disk drive or other digital media.

6.4. is often performed on hard drives containing sensitive data that are considered confidential such as financial information.

7. 1.2.3 Hard Drive Destruction

7.1. is important to be aware that formatting and reinstalling an operating system on a computer does not ensure that information cannot be recovered.

7.2. Destroying the hard drive is the best option for companies with sensitive data

7.3. Drilling holes through a drive’s platters is not the most effective method of hard drive destruction.

7.4. Data can still be recovered using advanced data forensic software.

7.5. only way to fully ensure that data cannot be recovered from a hard drive is to carefully shatter the platters with a hammer and safely dispose of the pieces.

7.6. use a shredding machine designed for shredding these materials.

8. 1.2.4 Hard Drive Recycling

8.1. Standard format

8.1.1. called high-level formatting, a boot sector is created and a file system is set up on the disk. A standard format can only be performed after a low-level format has been completed.

8.2. Low-level format

8.2.1. The surface of the disk is marked with sector markers to indicate where data will be stored physically on the disk, and tracks are created. Low-level formatting is most often performed at the factory after the hard drive is built.

9. 1.3.1 Malicious Software Protection Programs

9.1. malicious software that is installed on a computer without the knowledge or permission of the user.

9.2. take several different anti-malware programs and multiple scans to completely remove all malicious software.

9.3. Anti-malware purpose

9.3.1. Anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-adware, and phishing programs.

9.4. Virus protection

9.4.1. antivirus program typically runs automatically in the background and monitors for problems. When a virus is detected, the user is warned, and the program attempts to quarantine or delete the virus.

9.5. Spyware protection

9.5.1. Antispyware programs scan for keyloggers, which capture your keystrokes, and other malware so that it can be removed from the computer.

9.6. Adware protection

9.6.1. Anti-adware programs look for programs that display advertising on your computer.

9.7. Phishing protection

9.7.1. Antiphishing programs block the IP addresses of known phishing websites and warn the user about suspicious websites.

10. 1.3.2 Signature File Updates

10.1. New viruses are always being developed, therefore security software must be continually updated.

10.2. virus signature is a set of unique data, or bits of code, that allow it to be identified.

10.3. Anti-virus software uses a virus signature to find a virus in a computer file system, allowing to detect, quarantine and remove the virus.

10.4. Step To Update Signature File

10.4.1. Create a Windows Restore Point. If the file you load is corrupt, setting a restore point allows you to go back to the way things were.

10.4.2. Open the antivirus or antispyware program. If the program is set to execute or obtain updates automatically, you may need to turn the automatic feature off to perform these steps manually.

10.4.3. Select the Update button

10.4.4. After the program is updated, use it to scan the computer.

10.4.5. When the scan is complete, check the report for viruses or other problems that could not be treated and delete them yourself.

10.4.6. et the antivirus or antispyware program to automatically update and run on a scheduled basis.

11. 1.4.1 Malicious Computer & Network Equipment Protection Methods

11.1. Network infrastructure can be protected by:

11.1.1. Secured telecommunications rooms, equipment cabinets, and cages

11.1.2. Cable locks and security screws for hardware devices

11.1.3. Wireless detection for unauthorized access points

11.1.4. Hardware firewalls

11.2. method of hardware security is to disable the AutoRun feature of the operating system.

11.3. AutoRun automatically follows the instructions in a special file called autorun.inf when it is found on new media.