Permeability of Soil

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Permeability of Soil by Mind Map: Permeability of Soil

1. Horizon A

1.1. Known as topsoil

1.1.1. Top layer of soil

1.2. Covered with litter

1.2.1. Leaves, twigs, and other organic material

1.2.2. Can be changed to humus by decomposing organisms

1.2.3. Helps prevent erosion and holds water

1.3. Has more humus and fewer rock and mineral particles.

1.4. Forest or unplowed area

1.5. Dark and fertile

1.5.1. Dark Color caused by organic material

1.5.1.1. Provides nutrients for plant growth and development.

2. Horizon B

2.1. Layer below Horizon A

2.2. Lighter in color than Horizon A

2.3. Contains less humus

2.3.1. Less fertile

2.4. Contains material moved down from Horizon A

2.4.1. Caused by process of leaching

2.4.1.1. Removal of mineral that have been dissolved in water.

2.4.1.1.1. Much of the material then is deposited in Horizon B.

2.4.1.2. Resembles making coffee in drip coffeemaker.

2.4.1.3. Water seeps through Horizon A.

2.4.1.3.1. Water reacts with humus and carbon dioxide to form acid.

3. Horizon C

3.1. Consists of partially weathered rocks

3.1.1. Gives rise to the soil horizons above it.

3.1.2. Rock is called the parent material of the soil.

3.2. Bottom horizon in soil profile

3.3. Most like the parent material.

3.4. Thickest soil horizon

3.5. Doesn't contain much organic matter

3.6. Not strongly affected by leaching.

3.7. Composed of coarser sediment than the other soil horizons.