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MEIOSIS (1) by Mind Map: MEIOSIS (1)

1. Cytokinesis

1.1. 2 daughter

1.2. Haploid

2. Each chromosome duplicated

3. Genetic unique

4. No DNA

5. Halves chromosome number

5.1. Special division

5.2. Sexual

5.3. No prior to fertilize

5.3.1. Haploid gamets

6. Homologous pairs of chromosome

6.1. Pairs

6.2. 23 chromosome

6.3. Same type

6.4. Genes control same trait & position

6.5. Alleles

7. Phase meiosis

7.1. Prophase 1

7.1.1. Synapsis

7.1.2. Usually shorter

7.1.3. Tentrad

7.2. Metaphase 1

7.2.1. Homologous arrange the Meta plate

7.3. Anaphase 1

7.3.1. Sypnasis breaks up

7.3.2. Homologous seperate one to another

7.3.3. Physically allign end to end

7.3.4. Opposite poles

7.4. Telophase 1

7.4.1. Daughter cell duplicate

7.5. Interkinesis

7.5.1. Similar to mitotic interphase

8. Genetic variation

8.1. Crossing over

8.1.1. Exchange genetic material

8.2. Independent assortment

8.2.1. Seperate random

8.2.1.1. Blocks of alleles

8.2.2. Maternal or paternal may be oriented toward pole of mother cell

8.3. Significance

8.3.1. Asexual

8.3.1.1. Clones

8.3.1.2. Chromosome by parents combines

8.3.2. Sexual

8.3.2.1. Genetic recombination

8.4. Fertilization

9. Phase meiosis 2 (similar to mitosis)

9.1. Overview

9.1.1. Unremarkable

9.2. Prophase 2

9.2.1. Chromosome condense

9.3. Metaphase 2

9.3.1. Chromosome allign Meta phase

9.4. Anaphase 2

9.4.1. Centromere dissolve

9.5. Telophase & Cytokinesis 2

9.5.1. 4 haploid

9.5.1.1. Sister becomes daughter

10. Life cycle basics

10.1. Plants

10.1.1. Haploid

10.1.1.1. Gametophyte

10.1.1.2. Larger or smaller than diploid

10.1.2. Diploid

10.1.2.1. Sprophyte

10.1.2.2. Larger or smaller than hiploid

10.2. Animals

10.2.1. Individual are diploid produce haploid gamets

10.2.2. Only part gamet

10.2.3. Gametogeneous

10.2.3.1. Sperm

10.2.3.2. Egg

10.3. Humans

10.3.1. Sperm & egg

10.3.2. Egg fuse to fertilize

10.3.3. Results in zygote

10.3.4. Multicellular embryo that gradually takes features

10.3.5. All growth mitotic division

11. Change

11.1. Number

11.1.1. Euploid

11.1.2. Aneuploid

11.1.2.1. Monosomy

11.1.2.2. Trisomy

11.1.2.2.1. Trisome 21

11.1.2.2.2. Particular 3 chromosomes

11.2. Parents

11.3. Sex

11.3.1. Too many of X or Y chromosome

11.3.1.1. Turner syndrome (XO)

11.3.1.2. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

11.4. Structure

11.4.1. To simultaneous breaks lead to loss

11.4.2. Deletation

11.4.2.1. Translocation

11.4.2.1.1. A segment from one chromosome to non-homologous

11.4.2.2. One or both chromosome breaks off

11.4.3. Duplication

11.4.3.1. Chromosome more than one

11.4.4. Inversion

11.4.4.1. Genes occur reverse order in inverted segment

11.4.4.2. The internal segment reversed to before re-insertion