Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address

1. 2.1 Nature of A Social System

1.1. A social system is a complex set if human relationships interacting in many ways

2. 2.2 Social System Concept

2.1. 1) Social Equilibrium

2.1.1. Social equilibrium is achieved when there is dynamic working balance among all interdependent subsystems

2.2. 2) Functional and Dysfunctional Effects of Change

2.2.1. Dysfunctional effect is an unfavorable effect of change

2.2.2. Functional effect is a favourable outcome of change

2.3. 3) Psychological and Economic Contracts

2.3.1. Psychological and economic contracts are agreements made between an employer and an employee on what to give and what to receive from each other

2.4. 4) Impact of Roles

2.4.1. A role is a prescribed or expected behaviour associated with a particular position or status in a group or organization.

2.4.2. Refer Figure 2.1 Psychological and economic contracts Figure 2.2 Roles of an employee

2.5. 5) Role Conflicts

2.5.1. Role conflict is a situation in which an individual is confronted with divergent role expectations which occurs due to different perceptions and expectations of a person's role

2.5.2. Intra-sender Role Conflict - This conflict occur when a person transmits incompatible expectations or conflicting and inconsistent expectations to a role holder. - etc : When a boss instructs a supervisors to place more emphasis on quality while, at the same time, demanding greater quantity. In this situation, the supervisor will experience an intra-sender role conflict, where these two roles are not consistent.

2.5.3. Inter-sender Role Conflict - It happen when two or more individuals place incompatible demands upon a person. - etc : when the quality control manager wants the supervisor to maintain quality levels by rejecting more low-quality products, but, on the other hand, the finance manager wants the supervisor to reduce costs by rejecting fewer product

2.5.4. Inter-role Conflict - Arises when an individual occupies more than one role with Inconsistent expectations. In other words, certain roles expected of a person are in conflict with other roles that the person holds. - etc : when a student who is a single mother is expected to attend class, but at the same time is also expected to take care of a sick child at home. In this situation, the role holder faces the conflict of deciding which role to priotize

2.5.5. Person-role Conflict - Happen when a role holder is required to perform a role which contradicts or violates the role holder's attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviour. - etc : When a chef of Muslim faith is tasked with cooking a variety of dishes, including a non-halal dish, this contradicts the chef's attitudes and beliefs whereby Muslims cannot consume, cook or serve non-halal food

2.5.6. Role Overload - When there is a lack of balance or reasonableness in the number or the extent of expectations from a role holder - etc : Where a teacher is expected to work while at the same time expected to be a responsible mother to a child and a caring wife to a husband. In a community, she is also expected to perform some other roles which are impossible to be done all at once.

2.5.7. Role Ambiguity - Occurs when there is a lack of clarity in understanding the expectations or prescriptions that exist for any given role. - etc : lacks sufficient information and is unclear or uncertain about the expectations given in performing the role, typically the role in the job or workplace. The results in the role holder feeling unsure of how to act in his/her rile, causing the role holder to feel dissatisfied in the job at the end.

2.6. 6) Status

2.6.1. Status is the social rank of a person in a group or the position of an individual in relation to others, especially in n regard to social or professional standing.

2.6.2. Age, Seniority, Pay, Type of Work, Job skills, A person's abilities, Job level, Education level

2.7. 7) Status Symbol

2.7.1. Status symbols are the visible, external things that attach to a person or workplace and serve as evidence of social rank

3. 2.3 Organizational Culture

3.1. Definition - A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.

3.2. Do Organizational Culture Change? 1. Cultural Revolution - Cultural changes happen drastically and dramatically. - etc : a new policy for employees is imposed with immediate effect, such as a new working shift instead of the normal working hours, may badly affect employees if they are not ready for the change.

3.3. 2. Cultural Evolution - this type of cultural change happens slowly and gradually. i) Dominant Cultures - The core values shared by everyone in an organization. It was the most powerful, widespread or influential within a social or political entity in which multiple cultures are present. ii) Subcultures - Developed by group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture.

4. 2.4 Creating Organizational Culture

4.1. Step 1 : Formulate strategic values

4.2. Step 2 : Develop cultural values

4.3. Step 3 : Create vision

4.4. Step 4 : Initiate implementation strategies

4.5. Step 5 : Reinforce cultural behaviour

5. 2.5 Factors Shaping Organizational Culture

5.1. Characteristics of the People Within an Organization

5.2. Nature of Employment Relationship

5.3. Design of Organizational Structure

5.4. Organizational Ethics

6. 2.6 Sustaining Organizational Culture

6.1. Aligning vision and action

6.2. Making incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy

6.3. Fostering distributed leadership

6.4. Promoting staff engagement

6.5. Creating collaborative relationships

6.6. Continuously assessing and learning from change