adipose tissue secretions

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adipose tissue secretions by Mind Map: adipose tissue secretions

1. adipokines

1.1. good adipokines sc>visceral

1.1.1. leptin

1.1.1.1. endocrine effects

1.1.1.1.1. - regulation of immune function - hematopoiesis -angiogenesis - bone development.

1.1.1.2. known role in

1.1.1.2.1. -controlling body weight

1.1.1.2.2. -food intake thru hypothalamic p/ws

1.1.1.2.3. -glc homeostasis

1.1.1.3. primary fx is to

1.1.1.3.1. -increase satiety

1.1.1.3.2. energy expenditure thru axn on hypothalamus

1.1.2. adiponectin

1.1.2.1. anti-diabetic

1.1.2.1.1. liver: dec glc + FFA synthesis

1.1.2.1.2. muscle: incr FFA Ox & dec TAG prod.

1.1.2.1.3. activity incr @ insulin sensitivity & decr @ insulin resistance

1.1.2.2. anti-atherogenic

1.1.2.2.1. incr NO by insulin receptor of vasc. ep.

1.1.2.2.2. positive correlation to HDL

1.1.2.2.3. inverse correlations to LDL, TAG, Insulin resistance, & diastolic BP

1.1.2.3. anti-inflammatory

1.2. bad adipokines visceral>sc except TNF-a

1.2.1. adipsin & acylation stimulation protein

1.2.1.1. adipsin

1.2.1.1.1. sc>visceral required for the prod of ASP

1.2.1.2. both adipsin & ASP

1.2.1.2.1. positively correlate with: -adipocytes -insulin resistance -dyslipidaemia -CVD

1.2.1.3. acylation stimulating protein

1.2.1.3.1. incr insulin secretion

1.2.1.3.2. @ adipose tiss

1.2.2. resistin

1.2.2.1. 15 times greater visceral > sc

1.2.2.2. increases in T2D & insulin resistance; potentially linking obesity w/ insulin resistance

1.2.3. TNF-a

1.2.3.1. sc>visceral; may be dependent on regional fat mass

1.2.3.2. increase insulin resistance (liver, muscle, adipose)

1.2.3.3. liver

1.2.3.3.1. increase: -FFA prod -cholesterol synthesis

1.2.3.3.2. decrease: -glc uptake -FFA storage

1.2.4. protein from RAS

1.2.4.1. visceral>sc

1.2.4.2. renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, ACE

1.2.4.3. same target proteins as RAS in kidney>>incr aldosterone

1.2.4.4. vasoconstriction is primary activity from adipocyte RAS

1.2.4.5. liver

1.2.4.5.1. decreased lipolysis

1.2.4.5.2. increased lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, insulin resistance

1.2.5. IL-6

1.2.5.1. visceral>sc

1.2.5.2. 1/3 of Il-6 in circ is from adipose tiss

1.2.5.3. primary fx

1.2.5.3.1. increase insulin resistance (liver, muscle, adipose)

1.2.5.3.2. incr hepatic hyperlipidaemia

1.2.5.3.3. incr hepatic glc prod.

1.2.5.4. dec IL-6 in CNS -> dec energy expenditure

1.2.6. PAI-1

1.2.6.1. visceral>sc

1.2.6.2. inhibits fibrinolysis

1.2.6.2.1. inhibits tPA

1.2.6.3. TNF-a -> incr PAI-1 in adipose

2. steroidogenic enzymes

2.1. sex steroids

2.1.1. convert androstenedione to testosterone

2.1.2. convert estrone to estrodiol

2.2. glucocorticoid activity

2.2.1. control visceral adipose deposition