Respiratory system

Respiratory system recap

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Respiratory system by Mind Map: Respiratory system

1. The pathway of air

1.1. Air enters through nasal Cavity - pharynx - larynx - trachea - bronchi - bronchioles - alveoli (gas exchange o2<->co2) - capillaries - blood- heart - muscles (reverse)

2. Gaseous exchange

2.1. Process: the diffusion (exchange) of Co2 and O2 at the alveoli in the lungs. During inhalation the O2 from the air flows from the lungs to the bloodstream through capillaries whilst Co2 is transferred from the bloodstream to the lungs to be exhaled. The movement is a result of different concentration of pressure/gases.

2.2. characteristics of alveoli

2.2.1. sac like structures

2.2.2. one cell thick

2.2.3. large surface area

2.2.4. lined with capillaries

2.2.5. moist walls

3. mechanics of breathing

3.1. inhalation

3.1.1. the diaphragm pulls downwards/flattens

3.1.2. intercostal muscles contract

3.1.3. chest cavity (space) increases

3.1.4. air pressure decreases to allow air to enter

3.2. exhalation

3.2.1. the diaphragm relaxes upwards into a dome position

3.2.2. intercostal muscles relax

3.2.3. chest cavity decreases

3.2.4. air pressure increases as air is pushed out

4. Breathing volumes and minute ventilation

4.1. tidal volume

4.1.1. vol. of air you inhale with each breath normally

4.2. vital capacity

4.2.1. the maximum amount of air you can breathe out forcibly after a maximum inhalation

4.3. residual volume

4.3.1. the amount of air left in your lungs after exhaling