Chapter 2: Information Systems in Organizations

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Chapter 2: Information Systems in Organizations by Mind Map: Chapter 2: Information Systems in Organizations

1. Organizational Culture and Change

1.1. Organizational culture

1.1.1. The major understandings and assumptions for business, corporation or other organization.

1.2. Organizational change

1.2.1. Definition

1.2.1.1. Deals with how organizations successfully plan for, implement, and handle change.

1.2.2. Change can be caused by

1.2.2.1. Internal factors

1.2.2.1.1. Initiated by employees at all levels

1.2.2.2. External factors

1.2.2.2.1. Wrought by competitors, stockholders, federal and state laws, community regulations,and natural disasters.

1.3. Lewin's Change Model

1.3.1. A three-stage approach for implementing change that involves unfreezing, moving, and refreezing

1.4. Lewin's Force Field Analysis

1.4.1. Driving forces

1.4.1.1. The beliefs, expectations, and cultural norms that tend to encourage a change and give it momentum.

1.4.2. Restraining forces

1.4.2.1. Forces that make it difficult to accept a change or to work to implement a change.

1.5. Leavitt's Diamond

1.5.1. Proposes that every organizational system is made up of four main components

1.5.1.1. People

1.5.1.2. Tasks

1.5.1.3. Structure

1.5.1.4. Technology

2. Organizations and Information Systems

2.1. Organization

2.1.1. A group of people that is structured and managed to meet its mission or set of group goals.

2.2. Value Chain

2.2.1. A series (chain) of activities that an organization performs to transform inputs into outputs in such a way that the value of the input is increased.

2.3. Supply Chain

2.3.1. A key value chain whose primary activities include inbound logistics, operations outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service.

2.4. Supply Chain Management (SCM):

2.4.1. Encompasses all the activities required to get the right product into the right consumer's hands in the right quantity at the right time and cost.

2.5. Virtual Teams and Collaborative Work

2.5.1. A group of Individuals whose members are distributed geographically, but who collaborate and complete work through the use of information systems.

2.5.2. They enable organizations to enlist the best people in different geographical regions to solve important organizational problems.

3. Change in the Organization

3.1. Innovation

3.1.1. Definition

3.1.1.1. The application of new ideas to the products, processes, and activities of a firm, leading to increased value.

3.1.2. List of today's most innovative products:

3.1.2.1. Tile

3.1.2.2. Healthcare technology

3.1.2.3. Butterfleye

3.1.2.4. NeuroMetrix created Quell

3.1.3. Two types of Innovation

3.1.3.1. Sustaining

3.1.3.2. Disruptive

3.2. Reengineering

3.2.1. Definition

3.2.1.1. The radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, information systems, and values of the organization to achieve a breakthrough in business results.

3.2.2. Business process Reengineering

3.2.2.1. Strong action taken to solve serious problem

3.2.2.2. Top-down change driven by senior executives

3.2.2.3. Broad in scope; cuts across departments

3.3. Continuous Improvement

3.3.1. Definition

3.3.1.1. Constantly seeking ways to improve business processes and add value to products and services.

3.3.2. Business process Continuous Improvement

3.3.2.1. Routine action taken to make minor improvements

3.3.2.2. Bottom-up change driven by workers

3.4. Outsourcing

3.4.1. A long-term business arrangement in which a company contracts for services with an outside organization that has expertise in providing a specific function.

3.5. Offshore outsourcing

3.5.1. An outsourcing arrangement where the organization providing the service is located in a country different from the firm obtaining the services.

3.6. Downsizing

3.6.1. Reducing the number of employees to cut costs.

4. Careers in Information Systems

4.1. The IS organization has three primary functions:

4.1.1. Operations roles

4.1.1.1. System operator

4.1.1.2. Information system security analyst

4.1.1.3. LAN administrator

4.1.2. Development roles

4.1.2.1. System analyst

4.1.2.2. Programmer

4.1.2.3. Web developer

4.1.3. Support roles

4.1.3.1. Database administror

4.1.3.2. System support specialist