John Stantrock, Children

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John Stantrock, Children by Mind Map: John Stantrock, Children

1. What Characterizes Development

1.1. Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes

1.1.1. Biological processes produce changes in an individual’s body. Genes inherited from parents, the development of the brain etc.

1.1.2. Cognitive processes refer to changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.

1.1.3. Socioemotional processes involve changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.

1.2. Periods of Development

1.2.1. Infancy is the developmental period that extends from birth to about 18 to 24 months of age.

1.2.2. Early childhood (preschool) is the developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age

1.2.3. Middle and late childhood is the developmental period that extends from about 6 to 11 years of age

1.2.4. Adolescence is the developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, starts approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 to 22 years of age

1.3. Age and Cohort Effects

1.3.1. A cohort is a group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences (growing up in the same city around the same time).

1.3.2. Millennials, the generation born after 1980 that is the first to come of age and enter emerging adulthood in the new millennium.

1.4. Issues in Development

1.4.1. Nature and Nurture

1.4.2. Continuity and Discontinuity

1.4.3. Early and Later Experience

2. Why Is Caring for Children Important?

2.1. The Importance Of Studying Children’s Development

2.1.1. Development is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life span.

2.1.2. You can become a better parent or educator.

2.1.3. Gain some insight about how your childhood experiences

2.1.4. Improving The Lives Of Children

2.2. Improving The Lives Of Children

2.2.1. Health and Well-Being

2.2.2. Parenting

2.2.2.1. If you plan to become a parent, commit yourself to providing your children with a warm, supportive, safe, and stimulating environment that will make them feel secure and allow them to reach their full potential as human beings.

2.2.3. Education

2.2.3.1. attention to the development of children’s ability to process information efficiently

2.2.4. Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

2.2.4.1. Culture

2.2.4.2. Ethnicity

2.2.4.3. Socioeconomic status

2.2.4.4. Gender

2.2.5. Resilience, Social Policy, and Children’s Development

2.2.5.1. For example, resilient children are likely to have a close relationship to a caring parent figure and bonds to caring adults outside the family.

2.2.5.2. Social policy is a government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.

3. How Is Child Development a Science?

3.1. The Importance of Research

3.1.1. Scientific research is based on the scientific method

3.1.1.1. Conceptualize the problem

3.1.1.2. Collect data

3.1.1.3. Analyze the data to reach conclusions

3.1.1.4. Revise research conclusions and theory.

3.2. Theories of Child Development

3.2.1. Psychoanalytic

3.2.1.1. Describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion.

3.2.1.1.1. Freud

3.2.1.1.2. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

3.2.2. Cognitive

3.2.3. Behavioral and social cognitive

3.2.4. Ethological

3.2.5. Ecological

3.3. Research Methods for Collecting Data

3.4. Research Designs

3.5. Research Challenges