GOVERNMENT-LED CLIMATE CHNAGE MITIGATION

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GOVERNMENT-LED CLIMATE CHNAGE MITIGATION by Mind Map: GOVERNMENT-LED CLIMATE CHNAGE MITIGATION

1. international agreement set goals that are adopted into national policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement)

2. REDUCE ENERGY USE

2.1. legislation can be used to set stringent emission standards for industry, power generation and vehicles; many countries have vehicle emissions standards that must be met before new vehicles can be sold

2.2. planning regulations can promote alternatives to private car use, for example incorporation of cycle paths.

2.3. GOVERNMENT CAN ALSO USE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES

2.3.1. Charging companies that emit pollution, which encourages a reduction in emissions levels; for example GHG tax

2.3.2. Carbon emissions cap-and-trade schemes and carbon offsetting

2.3.3. Tax credits for promoting renewables

2.3.4. Using road tolls and parking charges to discourage the use of cars

3. REPLACE FOSSIL FUELS

3.1. SOLAR POWER uses thermal panels to heat water for buildings or photovoltaic panels to convert sunlight into electrical energy

3.2. WIND POWER windmills have been used historically to pump water or drive mechanical machinery, for example for grinding grain to produce flour. Wind turbines that produce electricity are called aero-generators and usually have fewer blades than the traditional windmill meaning that they require stronger winds to get started. In northern hemisphere countries such as the UK, higher energy demand in the winter months is matched by more windy days and higher wind speeds.

3.3. GEOTHERMAL energy uses heat from the interior of the Earth and is used to heat buildings and generate electricity. Enhanced geothermal systems are created whereby holes are drilled into heated areas called ‘hot dry rock’. Pressurised water is passed through and collected as steam, which is used to drive turbines that generate electricity.

3.4. HYDROPOWER is currently the most used renewable source of energy. The energy obtained from the movement of water has historically been used to drive a variety of machinery from grinding flour to sawing wood. Hydroelectric power (HEP) is produced when flowing water drives turbines connected to a generator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

4. REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORT

4.1. International agreements to set goals to adapt into national policies

4.2. legislation can be used to set stringent emission standards for industry, power generation and vehicles; many countries have vehicle emissions standards that must be met before new vehicles can be sold

4.3. planning regulations can promote alternatives to private car use, for example incorporation of cycle paths.

5. REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURE

5.1. Using less fertiliser can reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Fertilisers should only be applied when required and preferably when there is maximum uptake.

5.2. Adding nitrification inhibitors to fertiliser to reduce nitrous oxide production.

5.3. Reducing methane generation from livestock by:

5.3.1. selective breeding to have cattle that produce less methane

5.3.2. Changing the livestock

5.4. Collecting and utilising methane emissions from biodegradation of animal waste as a source of energy.

5.5. Cultivating rice varieties that can be grown in drier conditions with higher yields to reduce methane emissions.

6. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

6.1. GOAL 7: Afforable and clean energy

6.2. GOAL 12: responsible production and consumption

6.3. GOAL 13: climate action