The institutions of the EU

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The institutions of the EU by Mind Map: The institutions of the EU

1. The main right to initiative in the EU law making process

1.1. draws up proposals for adoption by the European Parliament & the council

2. Elects European Ombudsman (complaints)

3. European Council

3.1. comprises national heads of states or government

3.1.1. most are represented by their prime pinister

3.2. Lead by its president

3.2.1. elected by the HoSG for a term of 2.5 years

3.2.2. Main task: manage the business of the European Council & chair its meetings

3.2.3. Represents the EU to the outside world

3.3. Main role: political direction of the EU

3.3.1. drafts the charters

3.3.2. drafts treaties

3.3.3. involvement in election of the president of the european commission

3.3.4. appoints the high representative of the union for foreign affairs and security policy together with the European Commission

3.4. Does not enact legislation

3.5. Does the EU-Summits

4. European Parliament

4.1. represents the EU's citizens, not member states

4.1.1. these sit in group representing political affiliation, not country

4.1.2. 750 MEP's + president

4.2. President of the EP elected by European Parliament

4.2.1. Represents the parliaments in relations with other EU instiutions

4.2.2. Oversees debates in plenary session

4.2.3. Ensures that rules of procedure are adhered to

4.3. directly elected by Eu's citizens

4.4. main goals:

4.4.1. Co-legislator with the council (legislative function)

4.4.2. Oversees the Commission & elects the commission's president (political function)

4.4.3. Approves the annual budget together with the council, as proposed by the Commission (budgetary function)

4.4.4. sets up committees of Inquiry - supervisory role

5. Council of the European Union

5.1. Composed of ministers of the member states

5.1.1. 10 different configurations depending on the topic

5.1.1.1. agriculture

5.1.1.2. environment

5.1.1.3. foreign affairs

5.1.1.4. etc

5.1.2. Only one council, but its composition differs

5.1.2.1. Ecofin council composed of all finance ministers

5.1.2.2. environmental council composed of all environmental ministers

5.1.3. Every council is chaired by the member state holding the presidency

5.1.4. Foreign affairs council chaired by High Representative of the Union for Foreign affairs

5.1.4.1. appointed by European Council with agreement of president of the commission

5.2. Presidency is not fixed

5.2.1. it rotates among the member states every six months

5.2.2. The president depends on the configuration of the council

5.3. Forms the intermediary between the EU and the governments of the Member States

5.3.1. Discuss laws

5.3.2. Amend laws

5.3.3. Adopt laws

5.3.4. Coordinate policies

5.4. Main competences

5.4.1. Main decision making body of the EU together with the European parliament

5.4.1.1. If member states do not agree with a proposal, they discuss it in the council

5.4.1.2. these two negotiate and adopt EU laws

5.4.1.2.1. only on the initiative of the European Commission

5.4.1.2.2. Council or EP have no right to legislative initiative

5.4.2. Responsible for coordination of EU member states' policies in specific fields

5.4.2.1. economic & fiscal policies

5.4.2.1.1. budgetary policies

5.4.2.1.2. strengthening EU fiscal framework

5.4.2.1.3. deals with legal & practical aspects of euro

5.4.2.1.4. financial markets and capital movements

5.4.2.2. education, youth, culture, sport: adopts EU policy frameworks in these areas & sets priorities

5.4.2.3. Employment policy: draws up annual guidelines & recommendations

5.4.2.3.1. based on the European Council's conclusions

5.4.2.4. EU's foreign & security policy

5.4.2.4.1. includes the EU's development & humanitarian aid

5.4.2.4.2. defense

5.4.2.4.3. trade

5.4.2.4.4. acts together with the HRUFASP

5.4.3. concludes agreements between the EU & other countries or international organisations

5.4.3.1. provides the mandate to the commission to negotiate on behalf of the EU agreements between EU and non-EU countries

5.4.3.1.1. at the end of negotiations, the council decides on the conclusion, based on proposal of the Commission

5.4.3.2. These cover broad areas

5.4.3.2.1. trade

5.4.3.2.2. cooperation

5.4.3.2.3. development

5.4.3.2.4. or specific topics such as fisheries, etc.

5.4.4. Adopts the annual EU budget, together with the European Parliament

6. European Commission

6.1. represents the interest of the Union as a whole

6.1.1. members of the commission are required to be independent

6.1.1.1. may not take instruction from government or other

6.2. president of European Commission nominated by the European Council

6.2.1. president's team subjected to hearings

6.2.1.1. if members are inappropriate, reshuffle or risk being voted down

6.2.2. allocates sectors of its activity among the members

6.2.2.1. each commissioner has a specific policy sector, called a portfolio

6.2.3. all commissioners are equal and equally accountable

6.3. Main Goals

6.3.1. the budgetary initiative

6.3.2. negotiating international agreements when ordered by the council

6.3.2.1. Drafts up budget, proposes to the Council & Parliament

6.3.2.2. subjected to the council

6.3.3. Monitor the implementation of Union Law

6.3.3.1. required under the treaties to ensure that these treaties are properly enforced

6.3.3.1.1. "Guardian of the Treaties"

6.3.3.2. role exercised through the infringement proceedings

6.3.3.2.1. can be brought before the Court of Justice

7. Court of Justice of the European Union

7.1. Two courts of law

7.1.1. Court of Justice

7.1.1.1. Assisted by Advocates General

7.1.1.1.1. delivers an opinion to the court of Justice on the case under consideration

7.1.1.1.2. Same status as judges

7.1.1.1.3. No nationality requirements

7.1.1.1.4. Persons whose independence is beyond doubt

7.1.1.1.5. Judges & Advocates general appointed by common accord of governments of the member states after consultation of a panel responsible for assessing candidate suitability

7.1.1.2. Delivers single collegiate judgment = Declare what the law is

7.1.1.2.1. reasons it gives for conclusion is often brief

7.1.1.2.2. compromise between judges involved

7.1.1.2.3. dissenting opinions are not allowed

7.1.2. General Court

7.1.3. Main goals

7.1.3.1. they ensure correct interpretation and application of primary & secondary union law in the EU

7.1.3.2. They review the legality of acts of the Union institutions

7.1.3.3. Decide whether member states have fulfilled their obligations under primary & secondary law

7.1.3.4. Court of justice: provides interpretation of Union law when reuested by national judges

7.2. One Judge per member state

7.2.1. Judges elect a president & vice pres

7.2.2. renewable term of 3 years

8. The European Central Bank

8.1. the bank works with the central banks in all member countries

8.2. two main purposes:

8.2.1. to keep prices stable, especially in eurozone countries

8.2.2. keep the financial system stable

8.3. task is to set key interest