Timeline Chapter 1

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Timeline Chapter 1 by Mind Map: Timeline Chapter 1

1. Intuitive-imitative approach

1.1. Depends on the learne's ability to listen and imitate rhythms and sounds

1.2. Presupposes the availability of good models to listen

2. Analityc-linguistic approach

2.1. utilizes information and tools such as:

2.1.1. phonetic alphabet

2.1.2. articulary descriptions

2.1.3. charts of the vocal apparatus

2.2. This approach was developed to complement rather than replace the intuitive-imitative approach

3. Grammar Translation and Reading-based approaches

3.1. teaching pronunciation is largely irrelevant

3.2. grammar or text comprehension is taught throw:

3.2.1. the medium of the learner's native language

3.2.2. oral communication is the target language in not a primary instructional objective.

4. The Reform Movement

4.1. emerged in 1890s as part of the reform movement in language teaching

4.1.1. The spoken form of a language is primary and should be taught first

4.1.2. The findings of phonetics should be applied to language teaching

4.1.3. Teachers must have solid training in phonetics

4.1.4. Learners should be given phonetic training to establish good speech habits

5. The 1940s and 1950s

5.1. Audiolingualism

5.1.1. pronunciation is very important and is taugnt explicitly from the start

5.1.1.1. the minimal pair drill technique is used

6. The 1960s

6.1. Cognitive Approach

7. The 1970s

7.1. Silent Way

7.1.1. attention paid to accuracy of production of both sound and structures

7.1.2. teaches also several indispensable tools of the trade such as:

7.1.2.1. sound-color chat

7.1.2.2. the Fidel charts

7.1.2.3. word charts

7.1.2.4. colored ods

7.1.3. Community Language Learning (CLL)

7.1.3.1. is a method developed by Charles A. Curran (1976)

7.1.3.1.1. students sit arround a table with a tape recorder

7.1.3.1.2. the counselor stands behind one of the students, with hands on the student's shoulder

7.1.3.1.3. conselor asks one of the students to say something in the native language he or she wishes to be able to say in the target language

8. Pronunciacion Teching Today

8.1. Communicative Approach (1980)

8.1.1. communication should be central in all classroom language instruction

8.2. limitation:

8.2.1. How can teachers improve the pronunciation of unintelligible speakers of English so that they become intelligible?

8.2.2. Techniques and practice materials that can be used:

8.2.2.1. listen and imitate

8.2.2.2. phonetic training

8.2.2.3. minimal pair drills

8.2.2.4. contextualized minimal pairs

8.2.2.4.1. sentence stem

8.2.2.4.2. cued student response

8.2.2.5. visual aids

8.2.2.6. tongue twisters

8.2.2.7. developmental approximation drills

8.2.2.8. practice of vowel shifts and stress shifts related vy affixation

8.2.2.9. reading aloud/recitation

8.2.2.10. recording of learner's production

9. deemphasized pronunciation in favor of grammar and vocabulary

9.1. nativelike pronunciation

9.2. time would be better spent on teaching more learnable items such as:

9.2.1. grammatical structures

9.2.2. words