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COPD by Mind Map: COPD

1. Etiology

1.1. asthma that worsens, Chemical exposure, pollution, smoking, Age 40+, cilia dysfunction, oxidative injury. Alpha- 1 antitrypsin deficiency.

2. Pathophysiology

2.1. chronic inflammation and thickening of the walls of the peripheral airways. Excessive mucous production and accumulation, Partial or total mucous plugging of the airways, smooth muscle constriction of bronchial airways and finally air trapping and hyperinflation of alveoli may occur in late stages. An Increase in RAW.

3. Clinical sings and symptoms

3.1. stocky/overweight, diminished respiratory drive, cough, sputum, cyanosis, peripheral edema/ right sided heart failure, neck vein distention, wheezes, crackles, Cor pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia.

4. Diagnostic test

4.1. FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEV1 %. Decreased IC and VC, Normal DLCO helps differ between COPD and emphysema. CAT exam/questionnaire, Severity of airflow limitation eval. FVC, FEVt, FEV1/FVC ratio, MVV, PEFR are all decreased in a PFT test.

5. Differential diagnosis

5.1. BODE index, Chest Xray, Commuted tomography of the chest CT scan, Lung volume and diffusing capacity, Oximetry and ABG measurement, Alpha 1 deficiency screening, Stress test.

6. Respiratory management

6.1. Therapeutic options which include helping your smoking cessation. Nicotine replacement patches, physical activity. Management of stable COPD using different medications to help keep your COPD from progressing, and management of COPD exacerbations using O2 devices, vent support if necessary, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and finally bronchodilators.