Renaissance and Reformation 1450 - 1600

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Renaissance and Reformation 1450 - 1600 by Mind Map: Renaissance and Reformation 1450 - 1600

1. Blaise Pascal was also a mystic

2. Renaissance Worldview. The renaissance began as a adaption of Medieval worldviews and its initial target was as a campaign for medieval Latin.

2.1. Humanists unearthed old Greek and Classical works, looked to a more secular view of society, put the emphasis back on man as an entity

2.2. Humanists perfected a linguistic science called philology, the study of vocabulary and usage.

3. Medieval Worldview

3.1. 1. Notion of a Divine Plan 2. Great Chain of Being; this thinking traces back to Plato and his followers 3. Dualism: a Platonic idea, spirit, soul, intellect and reason gave shape and nobility to unruly matter. In Christian eyes, our physical bodies incited us to sin. 4. Allegory: reading a material thing to find the higher spiritual or moral meaning behind it. 5. Providence: mere accidents seldom happen 6. Teleology: from Aristotle, all things have a telos, or inherent purpose

4. Skepticism by Montaigne, the inventor of the essay.

4.1. Materialist philosophy

5. The Renaissance Man: one who is learned in all the arts and sciences e.g. Da Vinci

6. Art

6.1. Linear perspective (Da Vinci, Raphael)

7. Ambitions of the State

7.1. Chief ambitions were to raise money, make war, feed the court, and do justice

7.2. Justice elevated rulers and kept the peace but attempts at it were largely haphazard.

8. Religion: an everyday part of life

8.1. Christian ethics: self-denial like Christ "put others first", love of one's neighbours

8.1.1. New node

8.2. - Served three purposes providence, salvation and community

9. Families and Friends

9.1. Family: a unit of economic production, education, and self-governance

9.2. Property was a bedrock

10. Counter-reformation

10.1. Catholic response to Luther was slow

10.2. The Count of Trent meets under Paul III to reaffirm the corpus of medieval law. It pushed bishops into cities and strengthened their authority.

10.3. Roman Inquisition, Roman Index of Prohibited Books.

10.4. The Jesuits under Ignatius Loyola fanned across Europe.

10.5. The counter-reformation was overall quite successful.

11. Reformation

11.1. Martin Luther was unhappy with indulgences and the practice of buying salvation.

11.2. 1517: Luther nails 95 Theses on Church of Wittenberg door

11.3. Protestanism allowed church folk to marry, stripped away medieval heritage

11.4. Charles V calls Diet of Worms to summon Luther

11.5. Calvinism, a separate Protestanist movement springs up. Calvinism is less hierarchical, is origin of English Puritans ("puritanical"); believes in predestination.

11.6. Anabaptists, a third group of Protestants with very little regard for hierarchy, travelled across Europe and later across the world.

12. The Big Picture

13. The Honour Code:

13.1. Be proud, not humble.

13.2. Be rich, not poor.

13.3. At conflict with religious views.

14. Demography: Malthusian Equilibrium Fertility = Mortality

15. A Dangerous World

15.1. Disease: fast-moving

15.1.1. Typhus, smallpox, typhoid

15.1.2. Bubonic plague (1347)

15.2. Famine

15.3. Violence and chaotic wars Banditry

16. Social hierarchy

16.1. Inequality is good

16.1.1. New node

16.2. Feudalist views

16.2.1. A method of governing in which land is central

16.2.2. Lords held fiefs, had power to tax, to judge, to run the local markets; power inherited Heriditary powers

16.3. Great chain of being

17. A Revolution in the Military

17.1. Medieval Times

17.1.1. Armoured knights on horseback

17.1.2. Stone Castle

17.2. Gunpowder changed medieval times

17.2.1. Cannon was invented

17.3. In response to the cannon: star-shaped, bastioned fortresses were created

17.3.1. Kingston, Quebec, Louisburg, etc

18. Worldviews

19. Renaissance

19.1. Print: Gutenberg invents movable type

19.1.1. Books become affordable, vernacular is used, news and propaganda is fostered; still, only a small portion of men can read.

20. High Renaissance in Rome: the patronage moves from Florence to Rome

20.1. Castiglione writes The Courtier, a work on the skills and values of a good courtier

20.2. Macchiavelli writes The Prince, an analysis of power and how to be a good leader.

21. Northern Renaissance

21.1. Piety and mysticism.

21.2. Erasmus: Europe's first public intellectual.

21.2.1. Erasmianism blended Humanism with piety.

21.3. Thomas More: english lawyer who writes Utopia

21.4. Writing in vernacular: William Shakespeare

22. The Growth of Science "demystification of the world"

23. Sixteenth-century Politics

23.1. Spain

23.1.1. Continent was under partial Spanish hegemony until early 17th century.

23.1.2. Spain was a divided kingdom

23.1.3. Success came with its colonies in the New World.

23.1.4. Charles V split his kingdom and put Spain and the Netherlands together and his successor faced problems of religious division.

23.2. France

23.2.1. War of Religions: Huguenots (Calvinists) vs. Catholics

23.2.2. Saint Bartholomew's Massacre killed many Huguenots

23.2.3. Henri IV of Bourbon enacts the Edict of Nantes, grants Huguenots immunity and says "Paris is worth a mass"

23.3. England

23.3.1. Henry VIII splits the Church and forms Anglican Protestanism because he cannot divorce his wife.

23.3.2. Henry's successor, Elizabeth I, defeats her Catholic older sister Bloody Mary for the throne, and rules for long years. conquers Spanish Armada

23.3.3. Civil War happens in 1642 that unseats and beheads Charles I, leading to a Calvinist republic

23.4. Italy

23.4.1. Italy is not a singular state.; consisted mainly of city-states such as Venice, Milan, Florence

23.5. Germany

23.5.1. Was under rule in Hapsburg lands by Holy Roman Emperor.

23.5.2. Peace of Augsburg enacted by Charles V: "he who holds power holds religion."

23.5.3. In 1618, Germany slips into the 30 Years War

23.6. Netherlands

23.6.1. "low countries" where many traders met; 17 provinces

23.6.2. Fought against Spanish rule

23.7. Ottoman Empire

23.7.1. Muslim state feared by Europe

23.7.2. Had a civil service mainly made up of slaves, children of Christian mothers converted to Islam; the Janissaries were also slaves; the Turks also tolerated the practice of other faiths

23.8. Muscovy

23.8.1. Ivan the Terrible undercuts power of the old boyar nobility