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Renaissance and Reformation 1450 - 1600 by Mind Map: Renaissance and
Reformation 1450 - 1600
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Renaissance and Reformation 1450 - 1600

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Blaise Pascal was also a mystic

Renaissance Worldview. The renaissance began as a adaption of Medieval worldviews and its initial target was as a campaign for medieval Latin.

Humanists unearthed old Greek and Classical works, looked to a more secular view of society, put the emphasis back on man as an entity

Humanists perfected a linguistic science called philology, the study of vocabulary and usage.

Medieval Worldview

1. Notion of a Divine Plan 2. Great Chain of Being; this thinking traces back to Plato and his followers 3. Dualism: a Platonic idea, spirit, soul, intellect and reason gave shape and nobility to unruly matter. In Christian eyes, our physical bodies incited us to sin. 4. Allegory: reading a material thing to find the higher spiritual or moral meaning behind it. 5. Providence: mere accidents seldom happen 6. Teleology: from Aristotle, all things have a telos, or inherent purpose

Skepticism by Montaigne, the inventor of the essay.

Materialist philosophy

The Renaissance Man: one who is learned in all the arts and sciences e.g. Da Vinci


Linear perspective (Da Vinci, Raphael)

Ambitions of the State

Chief ambitions were to raise money, make war, feed the court, and do justice

Justice elevated rulers and kept the peace but attempts at it were largely haphazard.

Religion: an everyday part of life

Christian ethics: self-denial like Christ "put others first", love of one's neighbours

New node

- Served three purposes providence, salvation and community

Families and Friends

Family: a unit of economic production, education, and self-governance

Property was a bedrock


Catholic response to Luther was slow

The Count of Trent meets under Paul III to reaffirm the corpus of medieval law. It pushed bishops into cities and strengthened their authority.

Roman Inquisition, Roman Index of Prohibited Books.

The Jesuits under Ignatius Loyola fanned across Europe.

The counter-reformation was overall quite successful.


Martin Luther was unhappy with indulgences and the practice of buying salvation.

1517: Luther nails 95 Theses on Church of Wittenberg door

Protestanism allowed church folk to marry, stripped away medieval heritage

Charles V calls Diet of Worms to summon Luther

Calvinism, a separate Protestanist movement springs up. Calvinism is less hierarchical, is origin of English Puritans ("puritanical"); believes in predestination.

Anabaptists, a third group of Protestants with very little regard for hierarchy, travelled across Europe and later across the world.

The Big Picture

The Honour Code:

Be proud, not humble.

Be rich, not poor.

At conflict with religious views.

Demography: Malthusian Equilibrium Fertility = Mortality

A Dangerous World

Disease: fast-moving

Typhus, smallpox, typhoid

Bubonic plague (1347)


Violence and chaotic wars Banditry

Social hierarchy

Inequality is good

New node

Feudalist views

A method of governing in which land is central

Lords held fiefs, had power to tax, to judge, to run the local markets; power inherited, Heriditary powers

Great chain of being

A Revolution in the Military

Medieval Times

Armoured knights on horseback

Stone Castle

Gunpowder changed medieval times

Cannon was invented

In response to the cannon: star-shaped, bastioned fortresses were created

Kingston, Quebec, Louisburg, etc



Print: Gutenberg invents movable type

Books become affordable, vernacular is used, news and propaganda is fostered; still, only a small portion of men can read.

High Renaissance in Rome: the patronage moves from Florence to Rome

Castiglione writes The Courtier, a work on the skills and values of a good courtier

Macchiavelli writes The Prince, an analysis of power and how to be a good leader.

Northern Renaissance

Piety and mysticism.

Erasmus: Europe's first public intellectual.

Erasmianism blended Humanism with piety.

Thomas More: english lawyer who writes Utopia

Writing in vernacular: William Shakespeare

The Growth of Science "demystification of the world"

Sixteenth-century Politics


Continent was under partial Spanish hegemony until early 17th century.

Spain was a divided kingdom

Success came with its colonies in the New World.

Charles V split his kingdom and put Spain and the Netherlands together and his successor faced problems of religious division.


War of Religions: Huguenots (Calvinists) vs. Catholics

Saint Bartholomew's Massacre killed many Huguenots

Henri IV of Bourbon enacts the Edict of Nantes, grants Huguenots immunity and says "Paris is worth a mass"


Henry VIII splits the Church and forms Anglican Protestanism because he cannot divorce his wife.

Henry's successor, Elizabeth I, defeats her Catholic older sister Bloody Mary for the throne, and rules for long years., conquers Spanish Armada

Civil War happens in 1642 that unseats and beheads Charles I, leading to a Calvinist republic


Italy is not a singular state.; consisted mainly of city-states such as Venice, Milan, Florence


Was under rule in Hapsburg lands by Holy Roman Emperor.

Peace of Augsburg enacted by Charles V: "he who holds power holds religion."

In 1618, Germany slips into the 30 Years War


"low countries" where many traders met; 17 provinces

Fought against Spanish rule

Ottoman Empire

Muslim state feared by Europe

Had a civil service mainly made up of slaves, children of Christian mothers converted to Islam; the Janissaries were also slaves; the Turks also tolerated the practice of other faiths


Ivan the Terrible undercuts power of the old boyar nobility