Reformation 1450 - 1600
by Lucy Liu
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Reformation 1450 - 1600
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Blaise Pascal was also a mystic
Renaissance Worldview. The renaissance
began as a adaption of Medieval worldviews
and its initial target was as a campaign for
Humanists unearthed old Greek and Classical
works, looked to a more secular view of society,
put the emphasis back on man as an entity
Humanists perfected a linguistic science
called philology, the study of vocabulary and
1. Notion of a Divine Plan 2. Great Chain
of Being; this thinking traces back to
Plato and his followers 3. Dualism: a
Platonic idea, spirit, soul, intellect and
reason gave shape and nobility to unruly
matter. In Christian eyes, our physical
bodies incited us to sin. 4. Allegory:
reading a material thing to find the higher
spiritual or moral meaning behind it. 5.
Providence: mere accidents seldom
happen 6. Teleology: from Aristotle, all
things have a telos, or inherent purpose
Skepticism by Montaigne, the inventor of the
The Renaissance Man: one who is learned in
all the arts and sciences e.g. Da Vinci
Linear perspective (Da Vinci, Raphael)
Ambitions of the State
Chief ambitions were to raise money, make
war, feed the court, and do justice
Justice elevated rulers and kept the peace
but attempts at it were largely haphazard.
Religion: an everyday part of life
Christian ethics: self-denial like Christ
"put others first", love of one's neighbours
- Served three purposes providence, salvation and community
Families and Friends
Family: a unit of economic production,
education, and self-governance
Property was a bedrock
Catholic response to Luther was slow
The Count of Trent meets under Paul III to
reaffirm the corpus of medieval law. It pushed
bishops into cities and strengthened their
Roman Inquisition, Roman Index of Prohibited
The Jesuits under Ignatius Loyola fanned
The counter-reformation was overall quite
Martin Luther was unhappy with indulgences
and the practice of buying salvation.
1517: Luther nails 95 Theses on Church of
Protestanism allowed church folk to marry,
stripped away medieval heritage
Charles V calls Diet of Worms to summon
Calvinism, a separate Protestanist
movement springs up. Calvinism is less
hierarchical, is origin of English Puritans
("puritanical"); believes in
Anabaptists, a third group of Protestants with
very little regard for hierarchy, travelled across
Europe and later across the world.
The Big Picture
The Honour Code:
Be proud, not humble.
Be rich, not poor.
At conflict with religious views.
Fertility = Mortality
A Dangerous World
Typhus, smallpox, typhoid
Bubonic plague (1347)
Violence and chaotic wars
Inequality is good
A method of
which land is
Lords held fiefs, had power to tax, to judge, to
run the local markets; power inherited, Heriditary powers
Great chain of being
A Revolution in the Military
Armoured knights on horseback
Gunpowder changed medieval times
Cannon was invented
In response to the cannon: star-shaped,
bastioned fortresses were created
Kingston, Quebec, Louisburg, etc
Print: Gutenberg invents movable type
Books become affordable, vernacular is
used, news and propaganda is fostered; still,
only a small portion of men can read.
High Renaissance in Rome: the patronage
moves from Florence to Rome
Macchiavelli writes The Prince, an analysis of
power and how to be a good leader.
Piety and mysticism.
Erasmus: Europe's first public intellectual.
Erasmianism blended Humanism with piety.
Thomas More: english lawyer who writes
Writing in vernacular: William Shakespeare
The Growth of Science
"demystification of the world"
Continent was under partial Spanish
hegemony until early 17th century.
Spain was a divided kingdom
Success came with its colonies in the New
Charles V split his kingdom and put
Spain and the Netherlands together and his successor faced problems of religious division.
War of Religions: Huguenots (Calvinists) vs.
Saint Bartholomew's Massacre killed many
Henri IV of Bourbon enacts the Edict of
Nantes, grants Huguenots immunity and says
"Paris is worth a mass"
Henry VIII splits the Church and forms Anglican
Protestanism because he cannot divorce his
Henry's successor, Elizabeth I, defeats her
Catholic older sister Bloody Mary for the throne,
and rules for long years., conquers Spanish Armada
Civil War happens in 1642 that unseats and
beheads Charles I, leading to a Calvinist
Italy is not a singular state.; consisted mainly
of city-states such as Venice, Milan, Florence
Was under rule in Hapsburg lands by Holy
Peace of Augsburg enacted by Charles V: "he
who holds power holds religion."
In 1618, Germany slips into the 30 Years War
"low countries" where many traders met; 17
Fought against Spanish rule
Muslim state feared by Europe
Had a civil service mainly made up of slaves,
children of Christian mothers converted to
Islam; the Janissaries were also slaves; the
Turks also tolerated the practice of other
Ivan the Terrible undercuts power of the old