The War of 1812
by Stevie Xie
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Major Events of War
1. June 1812 - The United States declared war
on Great Britain.
2. July 1812 - American army, led by General
Hull, crossed Detroit River and entered Upper
Canada. Few people in Upper Canada were
interested in joining the Americans.
3. July 1812 - A small number of British soldiers,
fur traders, and Native allies captured Fort
Michilimackinac. This, combined with the news
of British reinforcements on their way, resulted
in Hull's decision to return to Detroit.
4. August 1812 - British commander General
Brock was victorious at Detroit. General Hull
believed Brock had gathered many Native
fighters that outnumbered his army greatly,
so he surrendered. General Hull passed his
sword to Brock to show the surrender of the
American army. Hull's surrender prevented
Americans from invading from the Western
end of Upper Canada.
5. October 1812 - The Battle of Queenston
Heights took place. General Brock was killed,
and Queenston Heights was taken from the
6. November 20, 1812 - Salaberry's militia and
300 Native llies turned back Major-General
Dearborn and his 6000 men from their invasion
of Lower Canada.
7. April 1813 - Americans captured York, the
capital of Upper Canada. Parliament buildings
were burned by the Yankees.
8. June 1813 - Naval battle.
9. June 1813 - The British at Stoney Creek
stopped American advance into Niagra
Peninsula. Battle at Beaver Dams.
10. September 1813 - Americans destroyed
British naval power on Lake Erie. Britain's naval
domination of the upper Great Lakes ended.
11. October 1813 - American victory at Battle of
Thames River near Moraviantown. Chief
Tecumseh was killed.
12. October 1813 - At the Battle of
Chateauguay, American forces retreated from
the British and Canadian force.
13. November 1813 - Canadian militiamen,
British soldiers, and First Nations allies defeated
an American army of 7000 soldiers.
14. December 1813 - Americans set fire to the
town of Newark.
15. May 1814 - British Naval Fleet captured
American Fort Oswego.
16. July 1814 - Battle of Lundy's Lane. No
victory. Americans retreated to Fort Erie.
17. August 1814 - Washingon occupied for one
day by the British. President's mansion
scorched by fire. Repainted white. Called
"White House" ever since.
18. September 1814 - Sir Goerge Prevost led
British south; They were defeated at Plattsburg
on Lake Champlain.
19. December 1814 - Treaty of Ghent (Peace
20. January 1815. Battle of New Orleans.
Andrew Jackson won a victory for the
Americans. He did not know that the peace
treaty had been signed.
American immigrants were discouraged from
coming to British North America. British
immigrants were encouraged, as it was felt that
the immigrants would be willing to fight in case
the Americans decided to invide again.
The Border between the United States and
British North America was set at the 49th
Great Lakes freed from military control.
Great Britain began to recognize the United
States as a separate nation, although there was
People in Upper and Lower Canada had to co-operate
during the war. This brought a sense of
pride and unity.
Native allies were no longer needed for military
purposes. The British government decided to
assimilate the Native peoples, who were no
longer need for military purposes.
Trade was increased along the St. Lawrence -
Great Lakes route.
The Rideau Canal was first proposed as an
alternative route between Montreal and the Great
The Atlantic colonies enjoyed a period of
prosperity during the war. They were able to
continue their trade with neighbouring New
Heroes and Roles they Played
Sir Isaac Brock (1769 - 1812)
Was a British Army Officer
Served in the West Indies and in Holland before
coming to British North America.
Showed that with determination and planning, it
was possible to defeat the Americans.
Had great respect for Tecumseh. Defeated the
Americans at Detroit together.
Laura Secord (1775 - 1868)
Lived in Queenston
Overheard American soldiers discussing a
surprise attack on the British. Laura decided to
warn the British command, Fitzgibbon, and
risked her life to help the British as she walked
23 kilometres across fields and through forests.
The attack occurred as planned, but the
Americans surrendered to Fitzgibbon.
Tecumseh (1768 - 1813)
Was a well respected Native leader.
Wanted to protect the Native lands from
Helped General Brock capture Detroit in 1812.
Was killed in battle.
Had great respect for General
Brock. Defeated the Americans at
Charles de Salaberry (1778 - 1829)
Born in Quebec, was an experienced officer in the
Ambushed the Americans along Chateauguay
River. His troops made so much noise that the
Americans believed they were confronted by a
much larger army, and so they turned around
and went home.
He prevented the Americans from attacking
Montreal, as well as preventing the Americans
from attacking Montreal.
The battle of Lundy's Lane took place near the
Lundy family property near Niagara Falls.
Rather than fleeing, Catherine gave drinking
water to thirsty soldiers, and tended wounds
after the battle.
Following the battle, Catherine was honoured by
a visit from a British officer, who presented her
with his sword.
Causes of War
Britain and France had been at war in Europe
for nearly 20 years.
As a result, European ports were blockaded.
Americans, who were neutral, were
angered because they could not sell goods
or deliver cargo to blockaded ports.
The British stopped American ships and
suspected British workers working on American
ships were taken back to Britain. A number of
Americans who were not British were taken this
way. This also was a source of "Friction"
between the countries.
Good farmland in America was expensive, but in
British North America, plenty of good,
inexpensive farmland was available.
The British felt that if they could take over British
North America, there would be less resistance
from the Native peoples.
The British still had not accepted the Americans
as political equals. The British looked upon the
United States as a colony, and not as a full
sovereign nation. The Americans reasoned that
if they were equals, the British would not take
sailors off American ships. They felt that one
nation should not treat another nation in such a