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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology by Xuhui Quan (2011872056) by Mind Map: MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology
by Xuhui Quan (2011872056)
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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology by Xuhui Quan (2011872056)

Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

Learning outcome

Web 2.0, Concepts, Rich Internet application, Web-oriented architecture, Social Web, Characteristics, Information sharing, Interoperability, User-centered design, Collaboration, Feature, Search, Links, Authoring, Tags, Extensions, Signals, Example, Presentation, Google Sites, Prezi, Slide, Voicethread, Slideshare, Collaborative, Google docs, Showdocument, EnterTheGroup,, Dropbox, Blog, Google Blogger, Wordpress, Picasa, Wiki, Wikipedia, Educational Wikis, Pmwiki, Social Bookmarking, Risal, Clipmakes, Social Repositories, Yutube, Yuku, Rss And Podcasting, Bloglines, Natrue, Social Network, Facebook, Twitter, Tools for education, Technologies, Html, Javascript, PHP, JSP, ASP, Flash, XML, APIs, ASPI for SCSI device interfacing, Carbon and Cocoa for the Macintosh, DirectX for Microsoft Windows, Java APIs, eg Google api, Mobile Web 2.0, Accessing aspects of Web 2.0 sites from mobile internet browsers., apps, ios, andriod, wp7, Mobile Web Standards Evolution


References: Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.

What is web 2.0?, Read-write web, Consume, Create information and cntriute, e.g Wiki and Blogger, Content that can be easily published y ordinary internet users, Most free and friendly used, Leading to media revolution, Subscribing to information, "Syndication feed" or "RSS", Created by individual or public, Social spaces, Engaging people in collective activities in a social space, Converse, exchange resources and ideas and having fun, Activities, movies, bands, image,audio, text, e.g MySpace, Resources sharing an referencing systems, e.g Youtube,, Comments, recommendations, access, "Folkonomy", Flexible systems, Learn and improve based on users‘ activities, The internet as as platform, e.g Google Docs, Transformation of the internet into a platform, Open source, e.g Wikipedia

The wide spread of web 2.0, Fast and amazing speed, Future

Education and web 2.0, E-learning 2.0, Current development, Blog for support teaching and learning, Social spaces and repositories for teachers, Future development, New forms of asessment, Internet-mediated social learning spaces, New models, digital curriculum materials, Resources sharing and support, LMS

Web development, Web 1.0, That Geocities & Hotmail era was all about read-only content and static HTML websites. People preferred navigating the web through link directories of Yahoo! and dmoz., Web 2.0, This is about user-generated content and the read-write web. People are consuming as well as contributing information through blogs or sites like Flickr, YouTube, Digg, etc. The line dividing a consumer and content publisher is increasingly getting blurred in the Web 2.0 era., Web 3.0, This will be about semantic web (or the meaning of data), personalization (e.g. iGoogle), intelligent search and behavioral advertising among other things.


Web 2.0

Additional resources

The amorality of Web 2.0

Five Reasons Why Web 2.0 Matters

Are You Ready for Web 2.0?

Web 2.0 for Designers

Web 2.0

The Future Internet: Service Web 3.0

Additional resources

Educational technology

Benefits, Easy-to-access course materials, Student motivation, Wide participation, Improved student writing, Subjects made easier to learn, Differentiated Instruction

Technology in the classroom, Computer in the classroom, Class website, Class blogs and wikis, Wireless classroom microphones, Mobile devices, Interactive Whiteboards, Online media, Digital Games, Podcasts, New node

Methods of instruction




Learning by teaching

Learning design model

ADDIE model, Analyze, Some question, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate

The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model

the Smith/Ragan Model

the Morrison/Ross/Kemp Model

OAR Model


Analysis (costs / benefits, forecast), Value, Challenges, Technical challenges, Social and educational challenges, Growth, Future

Approaches, In the classroom, Blended learning, Class management, Podcasting, Outdoor, At work, Lifelong learning and self-learning

Support M-learning, E-book, Handheld game console, Tablet computer, ipad

Instructional Design Models

Learning outcome

Intorduction, What is instructional design?, Instructional design VS Lesson

Analysis, Needs analysis, What is needs analysis?, How is it completed?, Why is it important?, User/audience analysis, System/technology analysis, Content analysis, Conceptual Analysis, Relational Analysis, Advantages of Content Analysis, Disadvantages of Content Analysis, Feasibility analysis, Risk analysis


Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories. Available at:

Instructional Design & Learning Theory, What are Theories and Models?, Theory, A general explanation for observations made over time, Explains and predicts behavior, Established beyond all doubt, Modified, Models, A mental picture that helps understand something which cannot see or experience directly, The Basics of the Learning Theories, The Basics of Behaviorism, Pavlov (1849 - 1936), Thorndike (1874 - 1949), Watson (1878 - 1958), Skinner (1904 - 1990), The Basics of Cognitivism, Schema, Three-Stage Information Processing Model, Sensory Register, Short-Term Memory, Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM), Meaningful Effects, Serial Position Effects, Practice Effects, Transfer Effects, Interference Effects, Organization Effects, Levels of Processing Effects, State Dependent Effects, Mnemonic Effects, Schema Effects, Advance Organizers, The Basics of Constructivism, Realistic constructivism, Radical constructivism, The History of Learning Theories in Instructional Design, Behaviorism and Instructional Design, Behavioral Objectives Movement, Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement, Early Use of Programmed Instruction, Individualized Approaches to Instruction, Keller Plan (1963), Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) (1964), Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) (1967), Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), Systems Approach to Instruction, Cognitivism and Instructional Design, Constructivism and Instructional Design, Other examples theory, schema theory (Spiro, et al, 1991, in Schwier, 1998), connectionism (Bereiter, 1991, in Schwier, 1998), hypermedia (Tolhurst, 1992, in Schwier, 1998), multimedia (Dede, 1992, in Schwier, 1998), Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses, Behaviorism, Weakness, Strength, Cognitivism, Weakness, Strength, Constructivism, Weakness, Strength

Additional resources

e-Learning Games

Designing Instructional/Learning Technology Product I

Learning outcome

Instructional design, Define a goal, Conduct instructional analysis, Job description, Job-related documents, Observation work, Discuss specific jobs, Extrapolation of task, Analyze learners and context, Write performance, Performance objectives, Instructional objectives, Behavioural objects, Specific instructional objectives, Learning outcomes, Content, Fact, Concept, Principle, Process, Procedure, Practice, Matching, MCQ, True/False, Simulation, Case, Game, Role playing, Hands-on, Assessment, Test questions, Develop assessment strategy, Drill and practice, Essays, Problem solving, Tasks, Develop Instructional strategy, Events of instruction, Gaining attention, Informing learner of the objective, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Presenting the stimulus material, Providing learning guidance, Eliciting performance, Providing feedback about performance, Assessing the performance, Enhancing retention and transfer

Product design, Flowcharts, software


Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64.

Searching for literature, Selecting appropriate database, Formulating search query, Performing search, Selecting results

Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID model, Learning tasks, simple-to-complex, basic sequence of a training, support, Supportive information, Mental models, conceptual models, structural models, Cognitive strategies, Cognitive feedback, Just in time information, Information displays, specification of the rules, knowledge prerequisite to application of the rules, Demonstrations and instances, rules demonstraion, concepts instances, Corrective feedback, Part task practice, Practice items, part-task practice, simple-to-complex task practice, JIT information for part-task practice, single-step or step-by-step instruction (Landa, 1983), Overtranining, Performance criteria gradually change, accuracy, accuracy combined with speed, accuracy combined with speed under time-sharing conditions or high overall workload

Discussion, Example, Task Class 1, Task Class 2, Task Class 3



Designing Instructional/Learning Technology Product II

Learning outcome

Storyboard, Design storyboard, Evaluate storyboard, Who evaluate, Project team, Editor, Client, A representative of a real user, A content mater expert, What evaluate, Content accuracy etc, Media etc, Pedagogical quality, Technical issues, Critique of storyboard, Detail enough?, Aspects improve?, Like what?


Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38

Theoretical principles of constructivism, Definition, Constructivism is a philosophical view on how we come to understand or know., Basic characterization, Understanding is in our interactions with the environment, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned., Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings.

The practice of instructional design, Eight instructional principles, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem, Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, Design an authentic task, Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning., Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking, Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts, Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

The practice of teaching, PBL, Early 1970's, In medical education, Replaces the traditional lecture based approach to anatomy, pharmacology, physiology etc, Barrows’ model (Barrows, 1992), Provide a concrete sense of the implementation of this process in the medical school, Problem Generation, Raise the concepts and principles relevant to the content domain, The problems must be "real"., Problem Presentation, First, if the students are to engage in authentic problem solving, then they must own the problem., Presenting the problem is to be certain that the data presented does not highlight critical factors in the case.



Additional resources

How to Storyboard

Designing for Concept Learning

Learning outcome

Prototype design, What is prototype?, A working model and a representation, Provides sufficient information, Used as important evolution tool, Interface design, Layout, Size of display area, Resolution, Color, Presentation design, Information design, General treatments, Media design, Typography

Prototype Evaluatiopn, Client, Real users, Design team, Development team

Issues, Web Influences design, Mobile devices influences design, Requirements for design, Effective design vs learning outcomes

Some design tools, Flash, ibooks, Dreamware, Photoshop


Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Available at

Concept, Some views about learning design, Instructional strategies and tools must be based on some theory of learning and cognition, A design technol-ogy based on no single theoretical base, Cunningham (1996) three models of mind guide conceptions of learning and cognition, Mind as computer, Learning as information processing—a cognitive skills ap-proach, Mind as brain, Learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition—a cog-nitive constructivist approach, Mind as rhizome, Learning as a sociocultural dialogic activity—a social constructivist or sociocultural approach., Online environments are particularly appropri -ate for collaborative learning approaches

Advancements, Blending technology and pedagogy, Text conferencing, Information sharing, Other forms of collaboration, Electronic student dialogue, CSCL, New journals, Conferences, Technology tool announcements, Instructional labs, Professional organizations

3 aspects on collaborative technology, Learner-centered, Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors, Nature of the learning process, Goals of the learning process, Construction of knowledge, Strategic thinking, Thinking about thinking, Context of learning, Motivational and Affective Factors, Motivational and emotional influences on learning, Intrinsic motivation to learn, Effects of motivation on effort, Developmental and Social Factors, Developmental influences on learning, Social influences on learning, Individual Differences, Individual differences in learning, Learning and diversity, Standards and assessment, Constructivist, Cognitive constructivist, Mind, Raw Materials, Student Autonomy, Meaningfulness and Personal Motivation, Conceptual Organization/Cognitive Framing, Prior Knowledge and Misconceptions, Questioning, Individual Exploration and Generating Connections, Self-Regulated Learning, Assessment, Social constructivist, Mind, Authentic Problems, Team Choice and Common Interests, Social Dialogue and Elaboration, Group Processing and Reflection, Teacher Explanations, Multiple Viewpoints, Collaboration and Negotiation, Learning Communities, Assessment, Sociocultural perspectives, Mediation, Zones of Proximal Development, Internalization, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Assisted Learning, Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community


Prototype design

Collaborative technology

Additional resources

Are businesses missing the benefits of collaboration technology?

What We Know About Collaborative Technology?

Development of a Product

Learning outcome

LTD frameworks, Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003), Multimedia principle, Integrate visual and verbal information, Split-attention principle, Integrate words and pictures, Redundancy principle, Information, Modality principle, Spoken rather than written conversational rather than formal style, Segmenting principle, Multimedia messages, Pre-training principle, Names and characteristics should be familiar to students, Coherence, Extraneous material, Signaling, Cues used, The Four-Component Instructional Design model -- 4C/ID-model (van Merroenboer, Clark, & Croock, 2002), Learning task, Supportive information, Just-in-time information, Part-task practice, Learning by Doing / Case-based Reasoning (Schank, Berman, & MacPhersoon, 1999), Goal, Mission, Cover story, Role, Activities, Resources, Feedback, Resource-based learning (Churchill, 2006; Oliver & Herrington , 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 2001), Resources and Tools, Activity, Support, Evaluation, Jonassen’s Constructivist Learning Environment, Active/Manipulative, Constructive, Intentional, Collaboration, Complex, Conversation, Contextualized, Reflective, Other models of learning by doing, Kolb Learning Cycle, Active Experimentation, Concrete Experience, Abstract Conceptualization, Reflective Observation, Dufour’s ‘Learning by Doing’, Experience, Share, Process, Generalize, Apply

A structured courseware package design, Open, Content presentation, Programmed instructions, Quiz/Test, Record of result


Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University. Available at

Online learning, Beneifit, Flexibility, Economy, Enhanced learning, Theory, Harmon and Jones (1999) describe five levels of Web use in schools, colleges, and corporate training, Informational, Supplemental, Essential, Communal, Immersive, Materials for online learning, Information Access, A broad array of resources, A variety of different perspectives, A variety of media forms, Large amounts of information, Literacy, Interactive Learning, Search and review documents, Reflect and to select, Select options to effect particular processing outcomes, Control of microprocessor controlled remote devices, Program modules, Networked Learning, Email, Bulletin boards, Discussion forums, Chat sessions, Audioconferencing and videoconferencing, New node, Materials Development, Frameworks for online learning settings, General, Lectures, Group discussions, Learning events, Communication, Self-study, Individual projects, Group projects, Testing, Instructional forms and learning, Initial Knowledge, Advanced Knowledge, Expertise, Knowledge construction, Theory, Cunningham, Duffy & Knuth (1993), Provide experience in the knowledge construction process, Provide experience in and appreciation for, multiple perspectives, Embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts, Encourage ownership and voice in the learning process, Embed learning in social experience, Encourage the use of multiple modes of representation, Encourage self-awareness in the knowledge construction process, Lebow (1993), Maintain a buffer between the learner and the potentially damaging effects of instructional practices, Provide a context for learning that supports both autonomy and relatedness, Embed the reasons for learning into the learning activity itself, Support self-regulated learning by promoting skills and attitudes that enable the learner to assume increasing responsibility for the developmental restructuring process, Strengthen the learner's tendency to engage in intentional learning processes, especially by encouraging the strategic exploration of errors, Savery & Duffy (1995), Learning is an active and engaged process, Learning is a process of constructing knowledge, Learners function at a metacognitive level, Learning involves social negotiation, Grabinger (1996), People transfer learning with difficulty needing both content and context learning, Learners are active constructors of knowledge, Learning is cognitive and in a constant state of growth and evolution, Learners bring their own needs and experiences to learning situations, Skills and knowledge are best acquired within realistic contexts, Assessment must take more realistic and holistic forms, Hannafin, Hall, Land Hill (1994), Open-ended learning environments, Instructional design for Web-based learning, Elements of online learning settings, Learning Tasks, Learning Resources, Learning Supports, Approaches to Instructional Design, Resource-based learning, Teacher-centred learning, Task-based learning, Learning settings that support knowledge construction

Learning tasks, Task-based learning design, Instructional design approaches, Content-based instructional design, Planning a sequence for instruction, Deciding how learning will be assessed, Activity-based instructional design, Planning a learning task, Deciding how learning will be assessed, Learning resource and learning supports, Content-based resources and supports, Guiding the learning process, Planning the resources, Task-based resources and supports, Guiding the learning process, Planning the resources, Presenting the learning setting, Content-based interfaces, Activity-based interfaces, Planning learning tasks, Inquiry tasks, Projects, Investigations, Process of solving problem, Articulating the problem space and contextual constraints, Identifying and clarifying alternative opinions, positions, and perspectives of stakeholders, Generating possible problem solutions, Assessing the viability of alternative solutions by constructing arguments and articulating personal beliefs, Monitoring the problem space and solution options, Implementing and monitoring the solution, Adapting the solution, Authentic assessment, Effective performers with acquired knowledge, Full array of tasks, Craft polished, thorough and justifiable answers, Validity and reliability, Simulates real-world, ill-structured challenges

Learning resources, Content pages, Web pages as information sources, Creating text for online presentation, Kinds, Page Index, Graphics and images, Elaborations, Hyperlinks, Information presentation, Making use of the media, Creative ideas for designing online learning resources, Primary sources, Authentic sources, Virtual settings, Multiple perspectives, Dynamic sites, Interactive learning resources, Tutorials, Quizzes, Simulations

Learning supports, Online learning support strategies, Learning Contracts, Technology requirements, Nature of the learning design, Course resourcing, Roles and responsibilities of the learners, Forms of learner support to be provided, Anticipated workloads, Learning Schedules, Learning activities that can (should) be undertaken, Information to be collected, People to be contacted, Tasks to be planned, Tasks to be finalised, Forward planning to be completed, Supporting self-regulated learning, Metacognition and self-concept, Self-monitoring and motivation, Volitional and Cognitive Strategy formation, Social construction of knowledge, Groupwork and Collaboration, Successful Collaborative Groups, Contexts for Collaborative Activity, Cooperative learning in on-line settings, Learning scaffolds, Scaffolding, Email, Threaded computer conferencing, Frequently asked question, Hyperlinked resources, Collaborative workspaces, Online chat, Learning communities, The concept, Features of a learning community (Moore and Brooks, 2001), Learning communities are constantly changing, they transform themselves as they grow and develop, Learning communities share wisdom and recognize the contributions of other members, Learning communities involve others in actively seeking participation and contribution, Learning communities value all members, Learning communities work through a cyclical process in the identification and resolution of problems., Learning communities take time to think and reflect, Learning communities share the results of their efforts, Developing learning communities, Discussion activities

Learning designs, Situated Learning, Characteristics of situated learning (Herrington & Oliver, 2000), Authentic context that reflects the way the knowledge will be used in real life, Authentic activities, Access to expert performances and the modelling of processes, Multiple roles and perspectives, Collaborative construction of knowledge, Reflection, Articulation, Coaching and scaffolding, Authentic assessment, Problem-based learning, Characteristic features, The use of materials to stimulate conversation and discussion of the problem, A problem which is a simulation of professional practice or a real life problem, Students' critical thinking guided, Learning undertaken, Identify their own learning needs and determine the resources, Reapply the learned knowledge, Case-based learning, Characteristics of case-based learning, Choosing case-based learning, Planning case-based learning in online settings, Choosing case-based learning, Project-based learning, Integrated learning, Authentic tasks, Product and process oriented, Collaborative, Inquiry-based learning, Role-playing and simulations, Preparation, Action, Evaluation

Design and development strategies, Learning objects, Accessibility, Metadata, Organisation strategies for online learning sites, Evaluating online learning settings


LTD frameworks

Additional resources

An E-Learning Design Framework