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Grammar by Mind Map: Grammar

1. Past

1.1. Past Simple

1.1.1. Facts that occurred at a specific time in the past. It happened in the past.

1.1.1.1. Subject+ Verb Past Participle+ Complement

1.1.1.2. Example: I want to school

1.2. Past Continous

1.2.1. Express an incomplete or unfinished action

1.2.1.1. Subject+ was/were+_ing+complement

1.2.1.2. Example: I was doing my homework

1.3. Past Perfect Simple

1.3.1. An event that occurred before another in the past

1.3.1.1. Subject+ had+ Verb Past Participle+Complement

1.3.1.2. Example: I had bought computer

1.4. Past Perfect Continous

1.4.1. An action that was in the past, but can continue

1.4.1.1. Subject+had+been+_ing+complement

1.4.1.2. Example: I had been studying for my exam.

2. Present

2.1. Present Simple

2.1.1. The simplest way to do something

2.1.1.1. Subject+ Verb Simple Form

2.1.1.2. Example: I talk

2.2. Present Perfect

2.2.1. Introduce after experience

2.2.1.1. Subject+have/has + Verb Past Participle

2.2.1.2. Example: I have bought a computer

2.3. Present Perfect Continous

2.3.1. has begun in the past and continues to occur in the present

2.3.1.1. Subject+has/been+_ing+complement

2.3.1.2. Example: I have been speaking.

3. Future

3.1. Future Simple

3.1.1. Be going to

3.1.1.1. plans/intentios/predictios/arrangement

3.1.1.1.1. Subject+be going to+ Verb Simple Form

3.1.1.1.2. Example:I am going to the beach

3.1.2. Will

3.1.2.1. decision in the moment/ promises/offered/ask.

3.1.2.1.1. Subject+will + Verb Simple Form

3.1.2.1.2. Example:We will go to the party

3.2. Future Continous

3.2.1. A time to pass in the future. They are periods

3.2.1.1. Subject+will be+_ing

3.2.1.2. Example: They are going to be having fun

4. Reported Speech

4.1. Use a reporting verb (past). Change pronouns (subject, prepositions). Backshift the verb. Change place/ time expressions.

4.1.1. Example

4.1.2. Direct Speech

4.1.2.1. Lev: I´m visiting my tomorrow.

4.1.3. Reported Speech

4.1.3.1. Lev said he was visiting his cousin the following day.

5. Gerund & Infinitive

5.1. Gerund

5.1.1. used when: like & dislike, prepositions, negative verbs, subject

5.1.1.1. Verb_ing

5.1.1.2. Example: Eating fast foods is convenient.

5.2. Infinitive

5.2.1. It is expressed as purpose or opinion

5.2.1.1. To+verb

5.2.1.2. Example: They plan to reduce fats in the food.