Research skills

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Research skills by Mind Map: Research skills

1. in our school, the librarions give the students guidance to find the right sources. They also organize trips to local university libraries with them

1.1. The most updated and recent library resources are integral here

2. Research "team"

3. Important to get students to understand what an appropriate article is for the IA. Contrast and look at articles which do the analysing for the student and are not appropriate.

4. In our school we developed for the EE a whole program of lessons/ workshops usually held with the help of the librarian, the DP coordinator and teachers, supporting students in the research and writing process. Simonne G.

5. Check sources of information in terms of trustworthy, credibility validity, reliability, appropriateness, etc

5.1. Students are encouraged to collect primary data from different sources and compare them with the secondary data obtained. They were also asked to explain the conflicts or incongruence if there are any.

5.1.1. Primary data should be supported with secondary data

5.2. Students often do not question the data they obtain be it online or from print sources. Many think the data must be credible because it is from a renown journal or governmental source. Especially in the local context where students are not taught to think critically from grades 1 to 10 of their formal education. They find it very uncomfortable when they spot inconsistences and often do not know how to deal with them.

5.2.1. Students often use blogs or similar "sources"--not realizing that these are usually poor choices for research. Some have trouble seeing that these are not credible. We have to teach them to check the credentials of the sources themselves. Anybody can post online, but that does not make them an authority.

5.3. This can prove to be difficult as some students tend to just take articles at face value

5.4. Students many times misunderstands the credibility of the source so a presentation conducted by EE coordinator showing examples of good source and bad source really helps them in understanding what can be taken up as a valid source.

5.4.1. It could work well if the students used a variety of reliable sources, not only the news and magazines, but also the works of prominent economists to support their views.

5.5. OPCVL Analysis From IB History

5.6. Media Bias Chart

6. This has certainly proven difficult here in China. VPNs are required to access most reliable sources, which some students lack. Due to this, many students don't even know what a news article looks like. It takes time to build their understanding on this point.

7. Give them a sample of how it is done and the method before they embark on writing their EE

7.1. Scaffolding examples and samples helps students to understand how this is done most effectively.

7.2. I think this is a good idea as well since the EE is such a new topic, giving a sample would help the students see how the structure is meant to be and what are the expectations of the EE

7.3. Providing a sample paper and marking criteria and ask them to mark the paper will make them understand better the expectation under each criteria's

8. Being able to sift through long winded resources. Typically, resources like this will be long and complex. We teach the students to look for key events or concepts they are researching.

8.1. Skimming is an essential research skill. Just like using a contents page or an index, student must learn to scan a page skillfully for useful content.

9. This is a very effective strategy. Many students will continue following the research of a great source.

10. A checklist of things to look for in a reliable source. How to know if a source is reliable checklist

10.1. Thank you for sharing this. I will use it!

10.2. It's a very good idea to formalize the reliability investigation. Just like in IB History where you assess a source's worth based on its nature, origin and purpose, it's worth asking the same question of a source used in IB Econ

10.3. What is the source of this document? It looks like it could be useful!

10.4. Check out this site to help students improve their skills in research: https://sure.nlb.gov.sg/tng/surevivors-activity7/

10.5. This is great. Thank you. I also feel that we should have more workshops (sessions) which focus on students' learning how to filter relevant information and data. This should be addressed on a school-wide level. More focus on asking students to question the data/ information and thus acquiring a different perspective.

11. Stress management

11.1. Having breaks

11.2. Rewarding yourself after reaching short-term goals

11.3. PE or yoga/wellness sessions

12. Learn how to us Excel Template for Gantt charting a research essay and setting milestones.

12.1. This is one option. By grade 11 students should be able to break down a large task like the EE using a variety of methods. I think this is one that could be shown to students but by the time they've completed some criteria B assessments in grades 9/10 MYP they should be able to do this already.

13. Time management skills

13.1. Organisation

13.1.1. up-to-date calendar

13.1.1.1. Students have to be aware of key dates, e.g first draft date, final draft date, first reflection date etc

13.1.1.1.1. We have a unified shedule for the EEs (first draft date, etc.) and each student has a two-year calendar for all the subjects' IAs.

13.1.2. organisation of files, resources, documents

13.1.2.1. Students keep a log for their process with dates and include all sources/links in file.

13.1.3. organised notes

13.2. Setting goals

13.2.1. Short term goals

13.2.1.1. As part of students' essay feedback, they get a review sheet where they have to reflect on their essay and come up with a short term target.

13.2.2. Long term goals

13.3. Planning

13.3.1. "Failing to plan is planning to fail!"

13.3.2. Create your own schedule and stick to your schedule!

13.3.2.1. The schedule is prepared with the guidance of a teacher and the process is agreed before the student begins and when the resources have been collected.

13.3.2.2. Students create action plans, to follow during their research. It is assessed as well, to see the progress and teach them to manage their time.

13.4. Setting priorities

13.4.1. Work on the most complex/demanding tasks first

13.4.1.1. Students often need support in this and we use a quadrant to help students prioritise their tasks,

13.4.2. Or work on the simple ones if they fit your personal schedule at that moment

13.5. This a very important skill that should be fostered (I try in pastoral context) the IB student almost inherently must manage this or suffer.

14. Librarians, Head of Diploma Programme & EE Coordinator support

14.1. Librarians provide detailed information and support for research for EE/ PP/ Extended Essay, TOK Essay and subject specific internal assessments.

14.2. The DP Coordinator can have a general session, along with teachers, to teach proper citation and raise general issues (and answer questions) for DP students. This is best done at the beginning of DP1. Sometimes, there is a fine line, however, in the extent of the DP Coordinator's role. They should not extend their role into subject specific concerns that are not their areas of speciality.

14.3. The school library team can be a great research for helping with EEs, IAs and research projects in general. Getting the school to subscribe to various websites/resources is very beneficial to students (and teachers!). The library team can help build the foundation of reseach skills and can help reinforce the message that these skills are good life skills in general to build (rather than being something just for Economics, etc).

15. The Economist, The Guardian, Economist/Freakonomics/planet money podcasts, Harvard Business Review, Bloomberg, Forbes, The Atlantic

15.1. mint newspaper

15.2. We have recently taken out a subscription for J store and are trialling Britannica throughout the school

15.3. World Bank, IMF, BBC, NT,FT

15.4. The IBO should get us a blanket subscription to the Access Management System. The fees should justify this great resource.

15.5. See links page already provided. OECD.org has a great Database. Moscow State University now has collections online too. Also, Academia.edu and ResearchGate

15.6. Trading economics gives an enormous amount of very up to date data.

15.6.1. We suggest trading economics as well as the IMF, cia.gov files, World BAnk, Eurostat and several newspapers such as the ones mentioned.

15.7. We subscribe to Economics Review. There is also Economics Today.

15.7.1. Our school also has a sub to the economist.

15.7.2. We subscribe to the Economist, Alternances Economique, FT and Europresse

15.8. Financial times, newspapers, BBC news

15.9. Free versions of many good podcasts are out there, we make great use of these for class discussions.

16. 4 Internet Research Skills

16.1. Keywords and advanced search

16.2. Browsing -

16.3. Searching

16.4. Being aware

16.5. Monitoring

16.6. By using Britannica and Jstore, sources are age relevant and more applicable to academic research

16.7. Know your websites

16.7.1. where to save them etc

16.8. Do not lose focus of what you are actually searching for

16.9. Have a question that you have devised before you do your research to keep the research focused

16.9.1. This is important. Sometimes students start with the general topic and they may lose time as the sources may be too many for them to handle.

16.10. Annotate your bibliography as you go along

16.10.1. Can use google scholar

16.11. Right. It's important for students to paraphrase their sources in their notes so that when they come to write a research paper, they don't plagiarize content in the source that they're referencing.

16.12. Staying focused on topic/question

16.13. Digital literacy. Digital citizenship. Responsible actions while doing research.

17. Using different research sources, e.g. books, journal articles, news articles etc.

17.1. Reuters, AP AFP...

17.2. Audio Visual Sources also from TED to Online interviews/podcasts/interviews in person with officials.

17.3. Secondary data can be obtained from online websites.Search engine such as google can be very useful. Also economic journals of authentic publications can be used.Newspapers also act as an important source

17.4. Show exemplars and ask them to evaluate

17.4.1. This is a useful activity as students practice evaluation when this is not assessed.

17.5. I often tell students to use the bibliography of an article from something very similar, this helps them find the right sourcesf for the theory if nothing else

17.5.1. This is very useful and can provide excellent sources to look deeper into a particular topic of theory.

17.6. worldbank data

17.7. Its helpful to run a workshop on primary research skills. Many students do not have the right skills in crafting appropriate interview and survey questions

18. Corroborating the information through various sources and cross checking validates the data and reduces bias

18.1. Method of inquiry inspired by the journalist and the reporters. Webinars with professional could be useful to have their own experience of research.

18.1.1. This is definitely something that should receive more attention and thus more time should be allocated to structured approaches here in all subjects.

18.2. Respect ownership of resources (intellectual property rights)

18.2.1. Use proper citations and as use footnotes in EE.

18.3. Analysis primary and secondary data to draw conclusion

18.4. On Economics lessons, we use CRAP test, OPCVL, SWOT analysis to check the validity of the used resources for research. Aiym

19. Exposure to different sources allows for more view points based on particular contexts and this allows the IB learner to become more open-minded.

19.1. Presentation of new topics and discussion from primary resources

19.2. Allow students to use national databases in foreign languages and provide a translation. Encourage use of Snopes and Fact checking.

19.3. IB encourages international mindedness. An important aspect of the learner profile is being open minded and it can only happen when the learner is able to see the larger picture than being restrcited to his own view point

19.4. present theories that contrast to the textbook. most of the textbook is very pro free market and students don't get introduced to much marxist theory or ideas about who is left out in free markets.

19.4.1. Getting students to appreciate the importance of data and how it links back to their research

19.4.2. A great book that is ok for IB students is The price of Inequality by Stiglitz for a Keynsian view. Great perspective about how politics can shape market outcomes.

19.4.3. To achieve a balance, I recommend that students compare the WSJ / Reason / Mises for a more free-market approach to economics to contrast with the statist assumptions present in most high school textbooks.

19.4.4. In addition to other schools of thought, I briefly discuss Modern Monetary Theory as well.

19.5. Economics as a subject leads to students being more open minded. Reading about various local and global contexts on varied issues really helps students

19.6. It is very important to offer students access to a variety of perspectives about issues they are familiar with - to encourage critical analysis of them and to help them distinguish between fact and opinion. Simonne G.

19.7. We share the difference sources in classes for IAs and recently acquired free access to paid newspapers with Financial Times as well

19.8. I think this is important as it gets to students to do cross referencing to verify that what is written is indeed true. Also they may get news ideas when they consult different sources

19.9. Through news presentations in class, students are become more aware of events that are currently happening. Students often have very different opinions which allows to have classroom discussions. This is great in terms of open-mindedness and cultural differences (one policy might work in one country but not in another country)

19.10. Sometime the students have some great sources. Recently they have shown me some TikTok accounts which are ecos related and I personally have some on Instagram. Of course these need to be fact checked but what source doesn't?

20. Being able to confidently reference research found from different sources

20.1. The students need here to learn the method to quote accurately their sources

20.2. Can acknowledge paraphrasing and direct quote

20.3. They need to learn methodology of conducting research particularly being able to select authentic data from secondary sources

20.4. Students through examples, need to recognise the difference between facts and statements, ie those which can be tested and those that cannot.

20.5. Make sure research skills are being covered in prior grades. Once kids are in the IB it is too late to have the fundamental skills.

20.6. Having a good understanding of requirements of bibliography helps

20.7. students need to be made aware of the different uses of different sources and the validity, reliability concerns of each and how to appropriately use them

21. Teachers encouraging research throughout the course and not only during IA or EE writing

21.1. We teach students how to distinguish facts from opinions.

21.2. I teach in Caracas and this is a constant discussion in our class. Students equate socialist ideas with authoritarian regimes which makes discussion hard surrounding equity and equality. Any ideas from the government are immediately dismissed.

21.2.1. Something similar happens in my school. Research activities in which students can compare and contrast macroeconomic indicators before and after specific government policies are adopted helpr students build well supported arguments before they make judgements.

21.2.2. Teaching in Maracaibo has led to similar issues. Will the students recognize any sources in the country? I will showcase some sources that take a more centrist approach compared to others.

21.3. a whole school approach

21.3.1. Agree that it should be a whole school approach. Otherwise, the skill will not become a habit.

21.4. Use of inquiry based learning providing more opportunities to different instruction made practical

21.4.1. Indeed! The move towards inquiry based learning will make research inevitable and there will be ample opportunities where the students will be taught to cite their sources.

21.5. Allowing students to bring articles, etc. to stimulate further conversation and research

21.5.1. we ask students to Read a short book or article. Make a list of 5 words from the text that you don’t totally understand. Look up the meaning of the words in a dictionary (online or paper). we also sometimes ask them to Look at a printed or digital copy of a short article with the title removed. Come up with as many different titles as possible that would fit the article

21.6. This is helpful for students. We set group presentations on topics that will be covered so that students contribute videos and powerpoint presentations, mindmaps and any tool they feel is right to present a topic, they have to research.

21.7. use presentations which require research

21.7.1. At the start of each lesson, students take 2 minute turns to present a newsworthy item.

21.7.1.1. We ask students to bring an article every week to locate examples for the essays [P1]. Students present the example they find.

21.8. This is a fundamental part of building analytical skill, to assign data research that can be presented in a seminar format for discussion in class.

21.8.1. I agree. I have my students engage in debates all year long so that they are forced to research and use analytical skills. Econ with out real life examples evaluated using research is pointless.

21.8.2. I agree to you this view in our school we follow .Practice skim reading— give students one minute to read a short article. Ask them to discuss what stood out to them. Headings? Bold words? Quotes? Then give students ten minutes to read the same article and discuss deep reading.

21.9. Have students to explore and learn the topic by research and presentation, for example, when they learn market failures, I will show them what are the typical examples, and I will ask the students to conduct research and find more examples and explain

21.9.1. I do a team-based project. Each team identifies a market failure in the school environment. They explain, draw, analyse and discuss a solution that might be applied or the outcome of a previous solution. IGCSE Y11 are the judges.

21.10. This is very important because it helps in creating a foundation base for the learners.They are able to learn from the beginning rather than being pushed right at the time of the IA or EE

21.10.1. Free inquiry will help to encourage the focus on searching for specific topics

21.11. Through classroom activities like discussions, debates,presentations, etc. backed up by primary and secondary sources.

21.11.1. Students need to understand the diff between primary and secondary sources using real life exs.

21.12. Have students evaluate sources. Give multiple articles that cover the same topic and have them pick up bias, agenda, etc.

21.12.1. This is a very important practice for IA and EE in our school we do this by giving them media literacy . we do this by Having a look at a fake website either as a whole class or in pairs/small groups. See if students can spot that these sites are not real. Discuss the fact that you can’t believe everything that’s online. The other way we do this by asking students to Brainstorm a list of popular domains (e.g. .com, .com.au, or your country’s domain). Discuss if any domains might be more reliable than others and why (e.g. .gov or .edu).

21.13. Our students are exposed to the research process early on and in HS we have collaborative lessons that reinforce research skills across the curriculum, especially in social studies, language and science courses.

21.14. Every week students present a news article or other article on a topic that they found interesting. We also have classroom debates on topics that they have todo research on.

21.14.1. We ask students to bring news article related to the economic theory covered in class and ask them to include a diagram and analyse and evaluate the article .

21.14.1.1. This is very important to begin this activity early in the year, and conduct it often. It is a great end-of-the-week activity that encourages students to identify and engage with appropriate news sources, and work on application and analysis skills

21.15. Students are encouraged to find real-life examples similar to the headline provided at the beginning of our classes. This article can be found on a list of resources shared with the class on Google Classrooms.

21.16. We inculcate the habit of research with each topic by discussing an enquiry question related to the topic and ask students to gather real world issues related to the topic

21.17. I make it quite clear that research is the major component of the EE and most of the work, students need to put together a great deal of work, to become the "expert".

21.17.1. The use of scaffholding activities must be worked on as students need to get better at choosing and article, however motivated students excel in the portfolio task.

21.18. Sounds like the use of inquiry based learning is adopted broadly among a lot of schools, and I think that's a good thing. However, it would also be likely that inquiry based approach may not be able to go into as much depth as the EE.

21.19. I do it it class when I get the students to research about real life examples to support their essays

21.20. Students regularly do pieces of research, whether it be mock IAs or simply trying to bring in real life examples into units of work. By giving students more ownership over what we study this build both research skills and enthusiasm.

21.21. Teachers must model the way too. When putting tog teaching materials, show respect to sources. Teachers should also justify why the use of data.

21.21.1. To build on activities presented in the Blink/Dorton text, students "adopt" a country at the beginning of the year, then conduct research about that country related to current class topics. For example, if we are studying currency, students will investigate currency-related considerations and policies of their country

21.22. Having students find suitable IA articles for everyday lessons is a strong way to practice research for the IA

21.22.1. Teachers should encourage students to read different Economics' articles.

22. Sorting out irrelevant or unreliable information

22.1. Fast checking to find out the fake news and debunk intellectual scams (conspirationist theories...)

22.1.1. CSAASP method to sort information and sources

22.2. create a research plan

22.3. Of course, what do you do when most sources that are considered reliable are reliable only in the sense that they always represent a particular ideological perspective but don't present the news in the most objective way possible? What do you do when the fact checkers selectively check, depending on whether the source they are checking advances their agenda?

22.3.1. Teaching students how to be S.U.R.E (from NLB, Singapore) - Source, Understand, Research, Evaluate.

22.4. For EE, students must always be probe and ask whether the piece of information is relevant to the RQ; and if so, how.

23. Finding reliable sources

23.1. Development of a critical thinking in paire with TOK

23.1.1. Evaluate the source and determine if it qualifies as a primary source that can be trusted. or is it paraphrasing other ideas

23.1.1.1. Developing 'ways of knowing' for students' TOK work.

23.2. CRAP or RAVEN analysis for creadibility

23.3. Critiquing sources and their credibility.

23.4. Creating a checklist of types of sources to avoid.

23.5. Compiling an annotated bibliography helps validate sources

23.5.1. I agree, not many students think about it and EE supervisors do not always require it. I will take note of this and adopt a more formal way of requiring my supervisees and students to create these.

23.5.2. This is very important to avoid being overwhelmed. I encourage students to do this and to send me a summary of their literature review.

23.5.2.1. Oftentimes students are overwhelmed by the sheer number of relevant sources, so it's important that they learn how to skim through a text quickly to decide on whether or not it's worth pursuing.

23.6. Show students places where they can find reliable sources

23.6.1. Encourage students to use scholarly databases such as Jstor or Ebesco. These are essential resources for higher education.

23.6.1.1. Students should read a couple of scholarly journals so they understand how proper research is conducted. It also shows students how to properly structure a research paper

23.6.1.1.1. I totally agree. I think this reading a few scholarly journals will helps students get use to the structure and language of the research paper. (Diego)

23.6.1.2. We do encourage the students to use JSTOR and Google scholar so that they are introduced to the true essence of research writing

23.7. As part of the EE process we ask student to talk about reliability of their sources.

23.8. We ask students to avoid sources which provides a biased opinion. Also ask them to prepare a bibliography to check the authenticity of the source.

24. locating information (look for both primary and secondary data) managing and organizing information analysing and evaluating information formulating research questions

24.1. Working on method of data managing and analysis such as ARE, OEOE... But also mindmaps, caroussels...

24.2. get students start from asking small but deep questions in class

24.3. In Singapore, our Diploma students had an presentation pre-EE from the national public library on how to do research.

24.3.1. Got this from the National Library Board of Singapore and sharing it here. Very useful for IBDP1 students before they start their research journey: Post-secondary Level.

24.3.2. Since 2016, my school has been collaborating with NLB to provide guidance on internet research: Marketline Advantage and SURE Research guide

24.4. Study a variety of sources but chose the relevant ones with care and mention them in citations

24.4.1. apply theory to practice but with an open mind.

24.5. I try to collect some good ideas throughout the year and write them down as possible starting points for students who are struggling with ideas. We often add to them as a class now when something really interesting comes along

24.6. Another participant in my workshop suggested a very useful table that students can fill in whereby they assess the extent to which an article is suitable for an IA commentary

24.7. With the help of DP coordinator, an EE orientation program is conducted where detailed information regarding collection of Primary and Secondary data, Good RQ, Bad RQ teach academic honesty with regards to EE

24.7.1. A one day program on Research Tools which will help the students in their research journey

24.8. We invite the NLB research officers to make a live presentation on relevant databases for our students in accordance to their disciplines. For example, the talk is tailored to the students' Group topics and its a hands on workshop which helps the students internalise what was shared

24.8.1. NLB (National Library Board) makes the effort to first find out the research topics and questions of the students so their talk can be more targeted which makes it very effective and beneficial for students

24.8.2. The NLB officers are very experienced in this area and can help share the most relevant databases for our students to access. They are able to follow-up on queries from students after the workshop.

25. It encourages students to dig below the surface and learn more in-depth

25.1. create assignments that allow to research one country from different macroeconomic objectives

25.1.1. The assignment can then be extended to cross country data to compare and contrast policies adopted with results obtained. This will help improve the research skills of the students, providing and international scope

25.1.1.1. My students have to "adopt a country" and learn all they can about it. This encourages research skills, data collection and presentation etc.

25.1.1.1.1. This is very interesting but students tend to opt for some countries over others. Still it is helpful in developing research skills.

25.2. The idea is excellent. I have had students come up to me during their EE research and say, Mister, I bet you didn't know blah blah" This in-depth knowledge ion a particular topic is great. Unfortunately, some topics are very difficult or extremely complex for certain students to genuinely grasp or comprehend once they begin further exploration.

25.3. One must also be aware of how difficult the topic might be, and letting the student do a topic that is too complex may result in conceptual errors in the analysis or invalid/shallow analysis, or difficulty in doing research. But I agree, EE definitely helps students to learn in greater depth.

26. Modelling it for them.

26.1. Show them what a dissertation looks like and how a research paper is structured in Economics

26.1.1. School libraries should have copies of previous extended essays for students perusal

26.1.1.1. Our school offers students access to a folder with samples of EEs.

26.1.1.1.1. This is excellent. We don't have many samples EEs. We have created a google classroom with all the EE-related materials and we use the comments section to discuss various issues. We have three teachers supervising the different students, and we use this as a common meeting lace.

26.1.1.1.2. This I think can be of great benefit to students, but many of mine often don't use them. They most likely look at the length and roll their eyes. I tell my students they should least look them over to see formatting, presentation, etc.

26.2. It is important to share a sample paper and show them how to approach it accordingly to score well.

26.2.1. I use a variety of IA commentaries, e.g. contrast why a very good commentary might have got 14 marks and why a poor one might only get 5 marks. Pair up students to mark, contrast and compare their own and with the PE.

26.2.2. Students are given several IA samples and they need to grade the IAs using the standard. After they finish marking, I will show the actual grades of the IA and we'll look at the papers together.

26.3. Have students grade real IAs written by former students. You can make it into a competition by asking them to compare what they've awarded the candidate with the actual teacher that graded the essay.

26.4. For many students, the EE can feel long and daunting. Having a sample paper can help showcase structure and style. Additionally, students can see how sections of the paper should be presented.

27. Summarizing and categorizing

27.1. This ability plays a vital role in the initial level of the research, a period when students gather the information. Data can be collected from various sources but for proper research one must look out for relevant sources. After collecting the data, one must be able to arrange it properly.

27.1.1. This is very important! Students must be aware the researching is an activity that takes a very long time even a the initial stages.

27.2. It is vital as it reflects the students overall understanding of the research

27.3. Ability to select key information - often numbers and stats.

27.4. Synthesis and evaluation is crucial in Extended writing

27.5. Note-taking is an important skill - recording the results of research. We used Cornell.

27.6. I have the students practice this when they do a review of the literature on their topic. They need to find articles and summarize and organize them.

28. Think critically

28.1. The research is valuable only if something new is presented. Information you present in your research should have a uniqueness in it. Critical thinking is what students need to carry out proper research. Students if presenting an argument, then they must have facts to support the argument.

28.2. Key aspect of research is tap on critical thinking areas of the learners. They need to analyse the reasons for supporting or being against an argument.

28.3. Critical thinking is also recognising and being aware of sources of bias in sources. Framing and question architecture is relevant here

28.4. Be sure to incorporate TOK aspects as often as possible, not just in the TOK classroom.

29. Ensuring sources are balanced (i.e. exploring authors/ publishers with varying motivates and political affiliation). This is particularly important in a country like Venezuela where such strong anti government sentiment is present.

29.1. with media outlets polarized more than ever, it is important for students to understand different motivations. Perhaps for the same topic, teacher can show different media outlet's response to a government policy could be helpful.

29.1.1. So true. The same is happening in the US and I encourage students to access different media outlets. Many of the students come from non-American backgrounds, so chose topics that relate to other countries.

29.2. I taught in Indoneisa where the bias is always towards the Neo Classical approach/anti government planning. This developmental state is anathema.

29.3. Students are encouraged to look for sources on their topic from at least three different publishing locations. This ensures that the students will see how their essay topic varies in perspective based on country.

30. Supporting the development of research skills

30.1. Give extra class to students who needed more guidance in doing their research and developing their art of questioning.

30.2. Develop inquiring mind by exposing students to different real-world economic problems. Ask students to do their own research and to utilize all the possible sources of information may it be digital or non-digital. Examine any collected data and its sources carefully to find out what is fact and what is opinion.

30.3. The inquiry based teaching approach provides several opportunities for students to develop research skills

30.4. Give students practice with researching and make the research skills part of the assessment criteria

30.4.1. Yes, valid point . By making research skills part of the assessment criteria in our school based assessments we can encourage our students to acquire and hone their research skills.

30.5. Students should be inducted by IT at the start of the diploma the different browsers; what and when each is more appropriate.

30.6. Associate students with a dedicated teacher throughout the two years to guide them with research school.

30.7. Enquiry based teaching and learning provides a strong base for the developing research skills. This can be done though starting each unit with an enquiry question and ask students to explore and research on the topic,

31. School Supports

31.1. In-class teacher

31.2. Librarian

31.2.1. Librarian could give a short presentation to students about basic research skills.

31.2.2. Our librarian is a key part of the EE process

31.2.2.1. I our school too. Our librarian have been very good in getting our school to pay for search libraries such as JSTOR , EBSCO etc...that offer great resources to our students. Signing up for JSTOR has been a great tool to our students writing EE in Economics.

31.2.2.1.1. Our librarian runs a research skills class and is very much involved with the EE research process. We have access to JSTOR.

31.2.3. We also teach the students how to use the national library as a resource for their EE research.

31.3. Research room with: computers, how-to-books, reference posters, group work tables, etc.

31.3.1. access to JSTOR

31.3.1.1. We give JSTOR access to students but it can be hard to get them to sift through scholarly articles at this point in their lives. Only the exceptional students here will even bother.

31.3.1.1.1. JSTOR truly helps the students in their polishing of research skills

31.4. Sample research papers (ie marked EEs)

31.5. collaborate with math teachers to prepare students with basic statistics tools

31.6. Librarian is the most important source for students. They should also have a dedicated library period to enable research.Time seems to be a constraint otherwise

31.6.1. Pre-EE: perhaps librarian can conduct 2-3 lessons on researching a specific topic in groups that may be of interest to students. students then can critique each other's sources and references selected. there should also be some practice sessions where students are reminded on how to reference appropriately. all in all, EE is a school wide process, cross-curriculum.

31.7. Peers can be good support as well. We run an EE exhibition where the IB1s show off their research plans. Their peers can ask questions and give suggestions. All teachers, parents and also younger studenst at the school are invited as well.

32. Understanding why academic honesty is related back to the learner profile and internationalmindedness.

32.1. By doing any research students should understand integrity and honesty of what they do. By developing research skill they take responsible actions on working with the sources and aware consequences of their work.

33. Guiding them through setting up their own experiments.

33.1. In Economics as well as in sciences we need to help students collect and sort through data in an organized way.

33.1.1. Time consuming so important. I have tasked my Y1 IB students to use some `nudges` in our dining hall to reduce food waste. Hopefully the lofty idea leads to some important learning.

33.2. very interesting and challenging! Setting up experiments requires not only advanced thinking skills but also great social skills as it is an experiment for social science!

33.3. I would love to have some of our students to conduct more experiments in Economics but I am sure neither them or even us , teachers might feel to confident to conduct them.

34. I agree that it has to be a whole school approach and that it has to be done in every single activity we do in class

35. Deadlines at the beginning of the year are important

35.1. We have an IB calendar and have to enter all the important assignments on it. We try to stick to it, and late work faces a penalty.

35.2. We have a calendar for every assignement and exam periods. Each teacher may set quizzes or small tests, but usually the calendar helps to avoid student overload and assists them to plan the work so as to avoid late work. Work submitted after the deadlines is penalised.

36. I think students need to be familiar with research methodology and data collection process. This equips them to determine whether or not a chosen topic is even worthy of research and if the methodology is feasible.

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36.2. Students, learn how to analyse resources thorugh different techniques, such as OPCVL,CRAP test, SWOT analysis.

36.3. Students who use primary data need to be given guidance how to design surveys and how to distribute them.

37. Supports IB Learners to be Inquirers, Knowledgeable, Open-minded and Thinkers

37.1. Integration of IB learner profile attributes

38. Natural Curiosity: it is important for our students in the DP to keep their natural curiosity that they had when they were still little children. We need to make sure that it is not lost after the hormonal changes and maturing stage the students go through.

38.1. Elaborate on all the skills required fro researching as well as the importance of right source from which information can be gathered.

39. Pose Narrow Research Question

39.1. This is the most important feature in beginning the research for the EE. The students must have something to investigate specifically and attempt to discover data, insight quantitative and qualitative data. To get a complete understanding and apply Economic theory.

39.1.1. It might be helpful to show students some sample research questions, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis before they proceed to form their own research questions.

39.1.1.1. I usually have students conduct a literature review first so they know if they can find enough resources and data on the topic.

40. Gather information about your topic review , analyze , interpret, evaluate information. Reaching conclusion and contribution

40.1. The key to develop a good research skills is guide students about media literacy. many students take up course without having proper knowledge about how to find good Information in this digital era.

40.1.1. Ideas to develop media literacy to gather information . step1:explain various and different types of domain by pointing out websites that end with various domains .com.org step2: search best domain by typing the word in google bar with site followed by colon and domain for eg world war 2''site''. step 3: search bets website for current events for eg for eg world war 2 site:"www.pbs.org"

40.1.1.1. Have students work in pairs to try out a different search engine (there are 11 listed here). Report back to the class on the pros and cons

40.1.1.1.1. 11. Think of something you’re curious about Open Google in two tabs. In one search, type in one or two keywords In the other search type in multiple relevant keywords. Compare the results. Discuss the importance of being specific.

40.1.2. Idea 2 to develop media literacy 9. Open two different search engines in your browser such as Google and Bing. Type in a query and compare the results. Do all search engines work exactly the same?

40.2. Good research skills also requires them to develop evaluative skills

40.2.1. Ideas to develop evaluative skills. Find two articles on a news topic from different publications. Or find a news article and an opinion piece on the same topic. Make a Venn diagram comparing the similarities and differences

40.2.2. Choose a graph, map, or chart from The New York Times’ What’s Going On In This Graph series. Have a whole class or small group discussion about the data.

40.2.3. Yes. Students should be know how to assess and look for the information they are looking for their research (Diego)

41. 1. Looking for information: Internet, books, journals, surveys, interviews, networking 2. Know the rationale for conducting primary or secondary research 3. Familiarise with quantitative (surveys and interviews) and qualitative methods(observance of an event, group discussion, interviews) of collection of data. 4. Check sources of information in terms of trustworthy, credibility validity, reliability, appropriateness, etc 5. Sourcing of information requires patience 6. Asking appropriate/ good questions in surveys, during interviews 7. Respect ownership of resources (intellectual property rights) 8. Analysis primary and secondary data to draw conclusion 9. Analysizing behaviour under certain assumptions 10. Writing reports that demonstrate critical thinking/analysis like validity of assumptions, maturity, recognising relative importance of factors affecting an issue. 11. Planning and scheduling of various stages of assignments

42. Triangulation of data is an important skill for students to validate their findings or disprove it , prompting them to find reasons why this is so.

43. Students are to sign a declaration form, declaring that the work is authentic, and that the use of the work/ideas of others has been duly acknowledged. Students by signing also

44. As teachers we need to ask questions, for which there may not be a ready answers. This will help our students to look for answers and 'nudge' them towards research.

44.1. We need to be aware of the possibility of our students getting lost or being overwhelmed by the online material. We need to teach them how to choose and use the right resources for their research. Using authentic and reliable resources is definitely challenge in today's world where we see 'Information overload'.

44.2. As teachers, we need to teach the students how to assess the resources. The outcome of any research greatly depends on the resources used and by discussing the relevance and value of the results obtained through research in terms of the resources used, we can make them aware of the importance in selecting the resources for research.

45. The most important skills I feel the students need to learn in research is critical thinking and data collection. The best way to develop these skills is to practice them regularly in class with analysis, feedback, and reflection of what students could do differently.

45.1. Critical thinking can be developed through various mini research activities

46. Introducing Research Methodology

46.1. Introduction to Research Question

46.2. Scope of the Research

46.3. Research Background

46.4. Data Collection

46.5. Data Analysis

46.6. Statistical Tools Used

46.7. Excel / SPSS / R software

46.8. Sampling

47. Research Skills in Chongqing (Ruihan)

47.1. Resources Available

47.1.1. 1. schools subscribe to a wide range of sources, including database, journals, articles, magazines, think tanks, etc.

47.1.2. 2. schools teach students how to cite sources properly, including format.

47.1.3. 3. students learn how to select sources and organize sources. It is not confined to EE and AI.

47.2. Skills Available

47.2.1. schools hold systematic training on topic research, organize sources, evaluate sources and writing skills

48. Explicit Teaching of how to cite sources both in text and with a works cited. Encouraging/scaffolding citations throughout the research process

49. Research skill have to deal with compiling APPROPRIATE information through right source and in the right way

50. Students being able to use academic databases. (Diego)

51. Initially, students must be provided with an exemplar database connected with the school's library and it must contain useful data. They are assigned the task to update data. For authenticity, the students should get data from the same source such as the Ministry of Finance and the UNDP database etc.

52. School can impose restriction on certain sources which are not reliable because some social media sources are manipulated to gain political mileage

53. Speechnotes(https://speechnotes.co/) can help students to create a rough draft and listen to it so that they can compile the draft and avoid stress. One of my students got sick due to extensive writing virtually. To avoid delay it can be a tool to use such software for writing purposes.

54. Suggestions: First express the ideas on which they want to research on. Secondly, use knowledge and information around their daily life. Third don't bother about the grammatical issue, because English is a foreign language for us. Fourth students must learn basic knowledge from those who have never study Economics or not familiar with Jargon. Finally, they should appreciate their completion of the task. The file attached is helpful.

55. EE Coordinator supports in MLA referencing to avoid plagirism

56. Besides showing the sample of EE to students, could also share the subject report with students to avoid the weakness especially in research part

57. Note: Impacts on the economy: Impacts where the beneficiaries are usually the NHS, private health care, or agriculture • Policies have been introduced which have had an impact on economic growth or incentivising productivity. • The costs of treatment or healthcare have changed as a result of research-led changes in practice. • Gains in productivity have been realised as a result of research-led changes in practice. • The roles and/or incentives for health professionals and organisations have changed, resulting in improved service delivery. • Evidence of improved cost-effectiveness. • Evidence of service change

58. Tha impact of corroborating information on economy is

59. Thinking IB is also useful