Minoan Civilization

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Minoan Civilization by Mind Map: Minoan Civilization

1. Geography

1.1. Crete

1.1.1. Mediterranean island

1.1.1.1. ideal position for trade

1.1.1.2. 200 km from East to West

1.1.1.3. 12-58 km North to South

1.1.1.4. Still inhabited

1.1.1.4.1. largest town: Heraklion

1.1.2. Landscape

1.1.2.1. Mountains

1.1.2.2. Coastal plains

1.1.2.3. Plateaus

1.1.2.4. Lybian Sea to South

1.1.2.5. Aegean Sea to North

1.1.3. Climate

1.1.3.1. Short, mild winters

1.1.3.2. Dry, warm summers

2. Economics

2.1. Trade

2.1.1. Major trade center, due to location

2.1.1.1. Center of Aegean

2.1.1.2. Trade routes intersected at Crete

2.1.1.2.1. Asia Minor

2.1.1.2.2. Mainland Greece

2.1.1.2.3. Africa

2.1.1.2.4. Europe (such as it was)

2.1.2. Imports

2.1.2.1. precious stones

2.1.2.2. Precious metals

2.1.2.2.1. gold

2.1.2.2.2. silver

2.1.2.2.3. copper

2.1.2.3. Tin

2.1.2.3.1. Used tin and copper to make bronze

2.1.2.4. grain from around Black Sea

2.1.3. Mainly traded with Greece, Syria, Egypt, Spain, and Mesopotamia

2.1.4. Exports

2.1.4.1. agricultural products

2.1.4.1.1. Cypress

2.1.4.1.2. Olive oil and olives

2.1.4.1.3. wine

2.1.4.1.4. currants

2.1.4.1.5. wool

2.1.4.1.6. herbs

2.1.4.1.7. purple dye

2.1.4.2. man-made goods

2.1.4.2.1. bronze

2.1.4.2.2. cloth

2.1.4.2.3. ceramics

2.2. Domestic

2.2.1. Supply-side economy

2.2.1.1. wealth came from palace and trickled down to the poor

2.2.2. Farming

2.2.2.1. products

2.2.2.1.1. grapes

2.2.2.1.2. chickpeas

2.2.2.1.3. vetch

2.2.2.1.4. barley

2.2.2.1.5. wheat

2.2.2.1.6. figs

2.2.2.1.7. some spices

2.2.2.1.8. olives

2.2.2.2. Most farmers were subsistence farmers

2.2.2.2.1. Grain had to be imported from Asia minor

2.2.3. livestock

2.2.3.1. pigs

2.2.3.2. cattle

2.2.3.3. sheep

2.2.3.4. goats

3. Military

3.1. peaceful society

3.1.1. No military to speak of

3.1.2. One of the few societies of the time period without a standing army

3.1.3. Not built on conquest; did not expand into an empire

3.2. Naturally defended by Mediterranean

4. Government

4.1. Palatial

4.1.1. King and aristocracy controlled wealth of country

4.1.2. Country grew through leadership that stayed away from threats

4.1.2.1. No standing army to feed

4.1.2.2. No threat of territorial invasion

4.1.2.3. No military bureaucracy

4.2. Monarchy

4.2.1. One king ruled from central palace

4.2.1.1. employed an efficient bureaucracy

4.2.1.2. Controlled mercantile navy to a certain extent

4.2.1.3. taxed a percentage of the grain harvest to feed and pay the people of the palace

4.2.1.4. Also had control over rulers of other palaces (provincial lords)

4.2.2. Strict social heirarchy

4.2.2.1. Nobles

4.2.2.1.1. landowners, traders, etc

4.2.2.2. Peasants

4.2.2.2.1. farmers and laborers

4.2.2.3. Slaves

4.2.2.3.1. worked without pay, tied to the land and whoever ruled it

5. Writing

5.1. Two scripts

5.1.1. Linear A

5.1.1.1. Has not been deciphered

5.1.1.2. Complex symbols seem to represent words

5.1.2. Linear B

5.1.2.1. Has been deciphered, but was not used much by the Minoans

5.1.2.1.1. Some researchers believe that the Minoan writings in linear B were actually Mycenaean translations

5.1.2.2. Was later adapted by the Mycenaeans and formed the basis of Classical Greek

6. Religion

6.1. Polytheistic Goddess-Worship

6.1.1. Dieties

6.1.1.1. Snake Goddess

6.1.1.1.1. goddess of the house

6.1.1.1.2. Protector of families

6.1.1.1.3. Also took form of small bird

6.1.1.2. Lady of the Beasts

6.1.1.2.1. Portrayed as mistress of all animals

6.1.1.2.2. Later showed as "mountain mother"

6.1.1.3. Lead Goddess

6.1.1.3.1. Much like Zeus, a "mother of the earth"

6.1.1.4. Various demons

6.1.1.4.1. Demons were portrayed much like they are in other religions

6.1.1.4.2. Always shown as humans with the hands and feet of lions

6.1.1.5. Nymphs/Guardian spirits

6.1.1.5.1. Sacred places suggest guardian spirit-worship

6.1.2. Priesthood

6.1.2.1. Mainly female priests

6.1.2.2. males mainly performed minor jobs

6.1.2.2.1. May have attained higher significance as the rest of Greece influenced the Minoans

6.1.3. Worship

6.1.3.1. hymns

6.1.3.1.1. sung in chorus and solo

6.1.3.1.2. accompanied by conches, flutes, drums, and lyres

6.1.3.2. rituals

6.1.3.2.1. planting and/or watering trees

6.1.3.2.2. priestesses shaking trees and gathering fruits

6.1.3.2.3. offering fruits and flowers to statues

6.2. Role in Daily Life

6.2.1. Not much known

6.2.2. Worshiped Snake Goddess in small shrines

6.2.2.1. Kept and fed small snakes

6.2.2.2. Had tiny shrines adorned with carvings and frescoes

7. Art

7.1. Subject matter

7.1.1. Household things

7.1.1.1. Pets, posessions, etc.

7.1.1.2. Not many pictures of unliving objects alone

7.1.2. Nature

7.1.2.1. Scenes

7.1.2.1.1. Example: cat chasing a bird

7.1.2.2. Items

7.1.2.2.1. Example: water lilies

7.1.3. People

7.1.3.1. All social classes

7.1.3.2. Not formally posed

7.1.3.2.1. Showed doing everyday tasks

7.2. Medium

7.2.1. Houses

7.2.1.1. Most famous Minoan art

7.2.1.2. Huge, detailed wall paintings

7.2.1.2.1. murals: painted on a dry wall

7.2.1.2.2. Frescoes: painted on wet plaster

7.2.1.3. mosaics

7.2.2. Vases

7.2.2.1. Much like other Greek vases in construction

7.2.2.2. Showed scenes like those of the frescoes

7.2.2.3. Pottery was the only main form of sculpture

7.2.3. Jewelry

7.2.3.1. Males and Females

7.2.3.1.1. Females wore slightly more jewelry

7.2.3.2. Design

7.2.3.2.1. Not generally portraying something in particular

7.2.3.2.2. Many materials

7.2.3.2.3. Could be worn anywhere

7.3. Significance

7.3.1. highlights Minoan character

7.3.2. Disproves common assumptions of ancient civilizations

7.3.3. Shows skill of Minoan craftsmen

8. Architecture

8.1. Public buildings

8.1.1. Palace at Knossos

8.1.1.1. inspired myth of Labyrinth

8.1.1.2. decoration

8.1.1.2.1. free standing

8.1.1.2.2. walls

8.1.1.2.3. architectural components

8.1.1.3. layout

8.1.1.3.1. up to four stories

8.1.1.3.2. Central court of 20,000 square feet

8.1.1.3.3. stone stairways led to other rooms

8.1.1.3.4. variety of rooms laid out in no particular order

8.1.1.3.5. Complex near palace

8.1.1.4. building

8.1.1.4.1. little to no marble

8.1.1.4.2. Blocks cut sharply and stacked without mortar

8.1.1.4.3. Heaviest materials used on lowest floors

8.1.1.4.4. Used columns to hold up roofs

8.1.2. Other palaces built similarly to Knossos, just not as big

8.1.2.1. Malia

8.1.2.2. Zakros

8.1.2.3. Phaistos

8.2. temples

8.2.1. very few temples

8.2.1.1. worship was instead conducted at sacred places

8.2.1.1.1. raised altars at them

8.2.2. raised altars in temples and public places

8.2.3. kept small, decorated shrines at home

8.3. houses

8.3.1. number of stories signified wealth of occupant

8.3.2. building materials were the same as for public buildings

8.3.2.1. mud brick for the poor

8.3.2.2. limestone and gypsum for those who were wealthier

8.3.2.2.1. wealthy also could have multiple floors

8.3.3. decoration was not limited to upper class

8.3.3.1. frescoes were popular in all classes

8.3.3.2. urns, amphorae, and statuettes were also popular

8.3.4. Aside from palaces, villas served as vacation homes

9. Technology

9.1. Agriculture

9.1.1. plows

9.1.1.1. wooden

9.1.1.2. leather handles and fastenings

9.1.1.3. pulled by pairs of oxen or donkeys

9.1.2. Some irrigation used, along with wells

9.2. plumbing

9.2.1. mainly reserved for rich

9.2.2. Water was collected and stored uphill from towns

9.2.3. Water flowed downhill in terra-cotta pipes

9.2.3.1. Pipes were tapered at one end to fit together

9.2.4. Sewage systems were also terra-cotta pipes

9.2.4.1. buried under streets and such

9.2.4.2. had traps to catch sediment

9.2.4.3. bound to other pipes with cement

9.3. roads

9.3.1. Roads were paved with cobblestones

9.3.2. Some of the most intricate roads in ancient civilization

10. Bibliography