Minoan Civilization

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Minoan Civilization by Mind Map: Minoan Civilization

1. Religion

1.1. Polytheistic Goddess-Worship

1.1.1. Dieties Snake Goddess goddess of the house Protector of families Also took form of small bird Lady of the Beasts Portrayed as mistress of all animals Later showed as "mountain mother" Lead Goddess Much like Zeus, a "mother of the earth" Various demons Demons were portrayed much like they are in other religions Always shown as humans with the hands and feet of lions Nymphs/Guardian spirits Sacred places suggest guardian spirit-worship

1.1.2. Priesthood Mainly female priests males mainly performed minor jobs May have attained higher significance as the rest of Greece influenced the Minoans

1.1.3. Worship hymns sung in chorus and solo accompanied by conches, flutes, drums, and lyres rituals planting and/or watering trees priestesses shaking trees and gathering fruits offering fruits and flowers to statues

1.2. Role in Daily Life

1.2.1. Not much known

1.2.2. Worshiped Snake Goddess in small shrines Kept and fed small snakes Had tiny shrines adorned with carvings and frescoes

2. Art

2.1. Subject matter

2.1.1. Household things Pets, posessions, etc. Not many pictures of unliving objects alone

2.1.2. Nature Scenes Example: cat chasing a bird Items Example: water lilies

2.1.3. People All social classes Not formally posed Showed doing everyday tasks

2.2. Medium

2.2.1. Houses Most famous Minoan art Huge, detailed wall paintings murals: painted on a dry wall Frescoes: painted on wet plaster mosaics

2.2.2. Vases Much like other Greek vases in construction Showed scenes like those of the frescoes Pottery was the only main form of sculpture

2.2.3. Jewelry Males and Females Females wore slightly more jewelry Design Not generally portraying something in particular Many materials Could be worn anywhere

2.3. Significance

2.3.1. highlights Minoan character

2.3.2. Disproves common assumptions of ancient civilizations

2.3.3. Shows skill of Minoan craftsmen

3. Architecture

3.1. Public buildings

3.1.1. Palace at Knossos inspired myth of Labyrinth decoration free standing walls architectural components layout up to four stories Central court of 20,000 square feet stone stairways led to other rooms variety of rooms laid out in no particular order Complex near palace building little to no marble Blocks cut sharply and stacked without mortar Heaviest materials used on lowest floors Used columns to hold up roofs

3.1.2. Other palaces built similarly to Knossos, just not as big Malia Zakros Phaistos

3.2. temples

3.2.1. very few temples worship was instead conducted at sacred places raised altars at them

3.2.2. raised altars in temples and public places

3.2.3. kept small, decorated shrines at home

3.3. houses

3.3.1. number of stories signified wealth of occupant

3.3.2. building materials were the same as for public buildings mud brick for the poor limestone and gypsum for those who were wealthier wealthy also could have multiple floors

3.3.3. decoration was not limited to upper class frescoes were popular in all classes urns, amphorae, and statuettes were also popular

3.3.4. Aside from palaces, villas served as vacation homes

4. Technology

4.1. Agriculture

4.1.1. plows wooden leather handles and fastenings pulled by pairs of oxen or donkeys

4.1.2. Some irrigation used, along with wells

4.2. plumbing

4.2.1. mainly reserved for rich

4.2.2. Water was collected and stored uphill from towns

4.2.3. Water flowed downhill in terra-cotta pipes Pipes were tapered at one end to fit together

4.2.4. Sewage systems were also terra-cotta pipes buried under streets and such had traps to catch sediment bound to other pipes with cement

4.3. roads

4.3.1. Roads were paved with cobblestones

4.3.2. Some of the most intricate roads in ancient civilization

5. Geography

5.1. Crete

5.1.1. Mediterranean island ideal position for trade 200 km from East to West 12-58 km North to South Still inhabited largest town: Heraklion

5.1.2. Landscape Mountains Coastal plains Plateaus Lybian Sea to South Aegean Sea to North

5.1.3. Climate Short, mild winters Dry, warm summers

6. Economics

6.1. Trade

6.1.1. Major trade center, due to location Center of Aegean Trade routes intersected at Crete Asia Minor Mainland Greece Africa Europe (such as it was)

6.1.2. Imports precious stones Precious metals gold silver copper Tin Used tin and copper to make bronze grain from around Black Sea

6.1.3. Mainly traded with Greece, Syria, Egypt, Spain, and Mesopotamia

6.1.4. Exports agricultural products Cypress Olive oil and olives wine currants wool herbs purple dye man-made goods bronze cloth ceramics

6.2. Domestic

6.2.1. Supply-side economy wealth came from palace and trickled down to the poor

6.2.2. Farming products grapes chickpeas vetch barley wheat figs some spices olives Most farmers were subsistence farmers Grain had to be imported from Asia minor

6.2.3. livestock pigs cattle sheep goats

7. Military

7.1. peaceful society

7.1.1. No military to speak of

7.1.2. One of the few societies of the time period without a standing army

7.1.3. Not built on conquest; did not expand into an empire

7.2. Naturally defended by Mediterranean

8. Government

8.1. Palatial

8.1.1. King and aristocracy controlled wealth of country

8.1.2. Country grew through leadership that stayed away from threats No standing army to feed No threat of territorial invasion No military bureaucracy

8.2. Monarchy

8.2.1. One king ruled from central palace employed an efficient bureaucracy Controlled mercantile navy to a certain extent taxed a percentage of the grain harvest to feed and pay the people of the palace Also had control over rulers of other palaces (provincial lords)

8.2.2. Strict social heirarchy Nobles landowners, traders, etc Peasants farmers and laborers Slaves worked without pay, tied to the land and whoever ruled it

9. Writing

9.1. Two scripts

9.1.1. Linear A Has not been deciphered Complex symbols seem to represent words

9.1.2. Linear B Has been deciphered, but was not used much by the Minoans Some researchers believe that the Minoan writings in linear B were actually Mycenaean translations Was later adapted by the Mycenaeans and formed the basis of Classical Greek

10. Bibliography