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1. Britishness (according to Robin Cook)

1.1. confidence and inner strength

1.2. 3 forms of threats

1.2.1. 2.1 membership of the EU: "absorbing" Britain; Britain is better off alone or as a member of NAFTA

1.2.2. 3.1 devolution of power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: a step further to the UK breakup

1.2.3. -> perceived "threats" can actually give the UK benefits

1.2.4. 1.2 there is no purity in English blood

1.2.5. 2.2 Britain´s history is linked to Europe, a geographic part of it -> culture and security depend on the EU; Britain trades 3 more times with the EU than with the NAFTA

1.2.6. 3.2 modern constitution allows flexibility

2. establishes support station for trade market and travellers = CAPE COLONY

2.1. high costs

2.1.1. sold land for immigrants from Europe conflicts with indigenous people pushed to interior made arrangements

2.2. growing immigration

2.2.1. THE BOERS (= european settlers) 1700ish Immigration Stop 1794 FREE BOER REPUBLICS 1854 1856

3. first men thought they would stay a few years and then return, by then having saved lots of money

4. reasons why second generation radicalizes: poverty, bad living standard, btw identities, don´t feel respected->discrimination

5. Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian countries (migrated to the western states

6. My Son the Fanatic

6.1. Message

6.1.1. deals with struggles of second generation immigrants->they feel cast out of the society they grew up in due to racism/failed immigration

6.1.2. seeking solace from poverty and discrimination in religion

6.1.3. shows why Muslims who grew up in the West get radicalized->clash of cultures and generations; lack of immigration

7. the British are not a race, but a gathering of different races and communities

8. German (escaping economic problems and seeking political freedom), British, Irish (poverty and famine encouraged emigration)

9. indigenious people lost their country and identity

10. suffering of the Native Americans (genocide)

11. South Africa

11.1. Terra nullius

11.1.1. = land that belongs to no one

11.2. Europeans

11.2.1. Portuguese 1488 Bartolomeu Diaz Seaway India bypass arabic/turkish trade

11.2.2. Dutch 1652 Jan Van Riebbeck

11.2.3. England 1806 CAPE COLONY = official Birtish Crown Colonie 1870 Cecil Rhodes 1889 "The British South African Company"

12. USA

12.1. God led Moses and his people to the promised land, a land flowing with milk and honey

12.2. Amercian Dream

12.2.1. Dream come true The promises of the American Revolution Americans did not have their own government by 1776, the British had authority over them and took taxes the colonies fought for their freedom and independence most equal society in the world for white men, htey had the right to vote and make decisions and they had the freedom to own black slaves Europeans wanted to bring progress and expand westwards thus the indigenious people had to resettle dreaming of equality first black slaves arrived in North America in the early 17th century, more than two hundred years later President Abraham Lincoln made them free but not equal during the civil rights movement of the 1960s Martin Luther King Jr. spoke for African Americans: "I have a dream"

12.2.2. Nightmare

12.3. Pilgrims - The promised Land

12.3.1. Puritans in 1620 believed they were establishing the New Isreal - they are guided by god

12.3.2. initial cultures lose their identity for all the American people to blend into one new race

12.3.3. George Washington as the "American Joshua" (Joshua is the son of Moses)

12.4. The Melting Pot

12.4.1. different elements "melting together" with a common culture metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous - describing a fusion of nationalities, cultures and ethnicities

12.4.2. Lee Jihyun describes that she wanted her kids to come to a more globalized place, but lso to gain a special edge when they go back home to Korea Goose family migration combines educational ambition with a desire for leisure, as the korean school system does not offer an individual thought in teaching the students

12.4.3. immigrants often face a lot of difficulties trying to maintain their initial cultures, especially if they differ from the American standards

12.4.4. the term "salad bowl" as a more accurate discription of immigrants living together with other cultures in coexsistence whilst staying true to their own culture

12.5. History of Immigration

12.5.1. first wave 1790-1820 Groups of immigrants came for a variety of religious, political, and economic reason Groups of immigrants came for a variety of religious, political, and economic reason

12.5.2. Immigrants came for new opportunities because in Europe, peasants displaced from agriculture and artisans were made jobless from the industrial revolution. Some immigrants received "American Letters" which were encouraging friends and relatives to join them in America.

12.5.3. second wave 1820-1860 the pilgrims identified themselves with the ancient Hebrews --> viewed the New World (USA) as the New Canaan Canaan in the old testament refers to the land west of the river Jordan, it was the country Moses led his people to when God told him to free them from Egyptian slavery those fleeing from religious prosecution often referred to this biblical account when they envisioned the American colonies as the "New Canaan"

12.5.4. third wave 1880-1914 Immigrants came over to America for more job opportunities and freedom of religion

12.6. Asian Americans

12.6.1. Asian Immigrants to the United States 1907 Gentleman's Agreement with Japan, wherein the Japanese government agreed to prohibit emigation to the United States early migrants were predominantly contract workers who labored on plantations, whose owners in the south sought Chinese labor as a cheap means to replace free labor of slavery Page Act in 1875 enforced to institute a near-complete exclusion of Chinese women from the United States due to the fear of Asian women potentially engaging in prostitution Asian Americans were largely prohibited from naturalization by law between 1880 and 1965 first asian-origin people were Filipinos

12.6.2. Exclusion Era development of China towns and self employment due to exclusion from agricultural labor by the Immigration Act of 1924 Japanese and Chinese immigrants were not seen as citizens nowadays, the US Asian population is the fastest growing racial or ethnic group, which suggests they will eventually be the nation's largest immigrant group in 2055

12.6.3. Korean Families Chase their Dreams in the U.S. "goose families" is a term which describes one parent migrating to an English-speaking country with the children, while the other parent stays in Korea --> families that migrate in search of English-language schooling having lived in Ameria carries a significant statues in Korean culture

12.6.4. Excerpt from Girl in Translation (2010) by Jean Kwok A Chinese girl and her mother emigrated to the United states. She gets an acceptance letter from Yale University and finds the courage to break away from the old traditions of her culture The girls Aunt Paula helped them migrate to the USA, however the girl and the mother had to depend on her and live under poor conditions because of her Going to Yale, one of the most prestigious and expensive colleges in the USA offers them the opportunity to free themselves from their aunt the girl is not afraid anymore to lose her face:" face or no face doesn't matter in America. What matters is who you really are" the girl accuses her aunt of "fake kindness, fake ettiquette" because Aunt Paula tried to keep her face Aunt Paula:"How dare you giving me so little face?" - Chinese idiom: when sb. gives sb. face they help the other person in a particular moment in a social situation that is embarrassing or unpleasant

12.6.5. On the Other Side of the War: A Story by Lucy Honig An American soldier meets a vietnamese Women whilst being on duty and they have a baby. He decides to bring her home with him The soldier as well as the women did not expect their lives to turn out like this as their culture is very different from each other The vietnamese wife has a hard time fitting into the American culture. She mixes up words and prepares hamburgers instead of pancakes for breakfast When their child started school they had to fill out forms and one question regarding the childs ethnicity. They don't know what to write down so they decide on 'H' which stands for Human race

12.7. The American Man

12.7.1. Letters from an American Farmer (J. Hector St. John de Crévecoeur) "a new man. who acts upon new principals" becoming a new man that has to leave his old life behind in order to adapt to new conditions future-orientated "Americans ought hterefore to love this country" - sense of patriotism "his country is now that which gives him land, bread, protection and consequences: ubi panis ibi patria "his religion demands but little of him" - religious freedom "individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men" - Metling Pot the immigrants are easily swayed to stay and adapt to the new environment as well as setteling with other races the new land is very promising and offers a lot of charming posibilities like enough food and fertile soil the lyrical I is very patriotic and confident about the New Land there is unity and no racism there are no bad aspects mentioned

12.8. Manifest Destiny

12.8.1. existed and still exists as the philosophy that embraces American history

12.8.2. Amercians thirst for expansion and to present a defense for Americas claims to new terretories

12.8.3. reflected as pride that characterized American nationalism in the mid 19th century and the idealistic vision of social perfection through God and church

12.8.4. in the name of this doctrine Americans took whatever land they wanted the belief that it is Americas mission to democratize the word

12.8.5. justification for Americas territorial expansion and imperialism

12.8.6. role of the USA as a global mediator in political conflicts also grew out of this mindset

13. Great Britain

13.1. 1.1 arrival of immigrants: do not share the same values and traditions, cannot immigrate properly

13.2. Multiculturalism

13.2.1. closed communities occur->live inside a "bubble" where they feel supported and understood

13.2.2. = cultural diversity; (peaceful) coexistence of people from different ethnicities in one region /country

13.2.3. advantages education: kids grow up in an open-minded environment, experience a variety of cultures and traditions become more understanding and supportive towards immigrants, develop a better attitude against racism economical vitality: professionals on various subjects contribute to the creation of a stronger team, new knowledge/ideas/perspectives->progress cultural diversity and strong economy -> better relationships with other countires local people adapting other cultures´ positive aspects into their daily lives

13.2.4. biggest non-white minorities: Indians, Pakistanis, Black Caribbeans

13.2.5. disadvantages people fear losing their identity under the strong influence of foreign communities->prejudice and racism far-right politicians fuel hate by blaming them for economic problems, portraying them as uneducated, criminal, unable to assimilate-> threat some communities feel unheard; example: poor Muslim communities rioting in Bradford-> all Muslims are labelled as "bad" no support for British values poor English skills kids are expected to fit family´s expectations and norms->school and education fall short splitting of racial and religious groups prejudice on both sides

13.3. general situation of Ethnic minorities in Britain

13.3.1. recently: Polish people ->second biggest minority

13.3.2. housing: poor areas, no mobility, but secure in their communities

13.3.3. education: differences in level of achievement, do less well than other pupils at all stages of education

13.3.4. law: black people are more likely to be stopped and searched, receive higher prison sentences, weak anti-discrimination law+lack of tolerance -> gap has widened in the UK employment: jobs in declining industries, unemployment much higher among minorities

13.4. historical background of Pakistani immigrants in the UK

13.4.1. 1950s: mills needed cheap labour to keep up with international wool production

13.4.2. a few Pakistani men were brought over for trial, then huge amounts joined->coming from a poor area, the low wages seemed huge

13.4.3. the more they worked, the less freedom they had

13.4.4. poor living conditions: crowded group houses; eating, sleeping and working in shifts; sending home photos of themselves holding symbols of Western affluence-> hope

13.4.5. middle 60s: wives and children were brought over

13.4.6. first, they were welcomed and treated well by the local community

13.4.7. wool trade started to die out due to economical issues->attitude towards Asian community changed-> intruers, scapegoats to blame for problems

13.5. being stuck between two cultures

13.5.1. immigrants fear losing their identity -> do not want their children to adapt to western lifestyle, marriage locals...

13.5.2. young immigrants worry about fulfilling their family´s expectations->want to integrate into their local community, be seen as equal; education and upbringing play an important role

13.5.3. nationalists fear losing British culture and "purity" of blood->"negative influence" of immigrants

13.6. similar fears, different reasons

13.6.1. education is key to integration

13.6.2. parents´ expectations may clash with kids´ dreams and wishes

13.6.3. not being accepted as a local

13.7. text exapmles

13.7.1. Chicken Tikka Massala external influences caused by commerce and imperial expansion; leads to pluralism of their ancestry over 30 ethnic communities and over 300 languages are spoken in the UK Britain absorbs and adapts external influences; more open to new influences Caribbean history (colonialism) caused them to migrate "Chicken Tikka Massala"->Indisch dish, now British national dish

13.7.2. "The Windrush Generation" "Windrush" is a troop shit that brought civilian from Jamaica to Britain in 1948 -> settled there with their families racism "offers you no comfort after your journey"->regrets; expectations

13.7.3. "Rivers of Blood" warning for immigration; he criticizes the mass immigration that is happening in the UK he´s afraid about loosing his British culture -> they don´t dare to speak up to immigrants due to history, everyone tiptoes around criticizing black people, afraid about being labelled as a "Racist" "Rivers of Blood" Romans were beaten by their own weapons-> just like Britain will

13.7.4. "Why did multiculturalism become a dirty word?" the woman in the text felt uncomfortable while she was walking with her mother, who wore a Sari in public she wanted to be white, but only has had little experience with racism Multiculturalism for her is a word, which includes seperatism

13.7.5. she now changed her mind and is proud about her Indian roots and having two cultures integration (multiculturalism UK) vs assimilation (US melting pot) integration assimilation